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the King, and that it was be- in Sicily, they can never exceed lieved all differences with the the sum fixed by its parliaUnited States were terminated. ment in 1803, without the conIt was thought that a treaty had sent of the parliament. From been proposed between the two the quota is to be deducted not countries, and advantages had less than a particular sum inenbeen guaranteed to the Americans tioned, for the payment of the in the ports of Sicily.
debt bearing no interest, and of On December 12th, was pup- the arrears of interest, till the lished by the king of Naples, a entire extinction of both, after decree for the purpose of con- which, the same sum is to be a firming the privileges granted to sinking fund for paying the Sicithe Sicilians, and reconciling their lian debt. Until the general sysinviolability with the unity of tem of civil and judicial admithe political institutions of the nistration of the kingdom of the United Kingdom. By its arti- Two Sicilies is promulgated, all cles, all civil and ecclesiastical its branches are to remain on employments in Sicily are to be their present footing. conferred exclusively on the Sici- Italy. The general weakness of lians, as, on the other hand, they the Italian governments at the can form no claim to the same present period, would necessarily employments in the other domi- become conspicuous in a state so nions of the crown. The great ill constituted as the secular dodignities of the United Kingdom minion of the Roman See; and are to be shared by them, in pro- its incapacity to preserve itself portion to the population of the from piratical insults, and from island, which is reckoned at a the outrages of banditti, is among quarter of that of all the subjects. the first intelligence transmitted Offices in the army, navy, and from the ancient capital of Euhousehold, are to be conferred rope. In February, whilst a conwithout any distinction of the voy of vessels was proceeding part of which the persons are down the Tiber to Civita Vecnatives. The government of the chia, and another was about to whole kingdom is always to re- sail from this port up the river, side with the person of the King; a large Tunisian xebeck made a governor of the royal family, its appearance, which, putting out or some other person of distinc- two boats, gave a general chace. tion, being appointed to preside The vessels all dispersed, and over the portion lying on that some of them sought protection side of the straits opposite to the under the guns of a small tower royal residence. The lawsuits in on the coast. The pirates boldly each part are to be determined in approached, notwithstanding the the last resort by their own tri- fire, and took possession of two bunals. Feudal rights are to be vessels, which, however, they afabolished on each side of the terward found it expedient to restraits. The permanent expences linquish. On the 13th, two piof the state are to be regulated ratical vessels appeared off Fiuevery year by a partition, but mara, and made captures; and it is asserted from Civita Vecchia, is still in full force, and that he that pirates are daily in sight, by guarantees peaceable possession whom the navigation is wholly to the purchasers. This is a cirintercepted. In fact, the finances cumstance worthy of observation, of the Pope are so much disor- as indicating the unwearied efforts dered, that he cannot maintain a of the Roman Catholic clergy, sufficient force on the coast, or in to recover all of which they had the interior, to protect his sub- been deprived in the late changes jects. At Rome itself, daring of the time, and the timidity of robberies are said to be committed the head of their church, relative in the most frequented streets ; to any measure which might inand the military tribunal at Fru- volve him in contests with the sinone being dissolved, and the secular authority. moveable columns of soldiers An additional proof of the more called in, the banditti are again humanized spirit of the religion making their appearance, though of Rome was given, in the betheir expulsion had been pro- ginning of August, by an edict claimed by the distribution of of the Pope, ordaining, that conhonorary crosses, with the in- fiscation shall no longer take scription “ Latronibus fugatis, place to the profit of the Holy securitas restituta.”
Office of the Inquisition in matters As an ecclesiastic, his Holiness concerning the faith. This prodid himself honour by a decree cess had been already abolished relative to the form in inquisito- in the papal territories, and the rial proceedings, in which the ap- present
determination was the plication of torture is forbidden. result of the liberal ideas of This determination was commu- Count Funchal, the minister of nicated by the Cardinal secretary Portugal, who was desirous of of state to the ministers of Spain introducing the same reform into and Portugal.
that kingdom and Spain. The same Cardinal on May The following article of intel4th, published a declaration in ligence from Rome, dated at the the name of the Pope, that hav- close of September, if it may be ing been informed, that some ec- depended upon, affords an interclesiastical courts had presumed esting view of the present state to print regulations in opposi- of the papal authority in some of tion to those which he directed in the countries, acknowledging the his edict of July 1812, relative to supremacy of the Roman church. the acquisitions made under the - The news from Gerniany is late government, of property very afflicting. It appears now termed national, whereby alarms exceedingly difficult, to say nowere spread among the purchas- thing worse, to enter into negoers, and fears as to the security tiations with several governments. of the purchases themselves, his We have temporized tuo much. Holiness orders it to be made The Princes, seeing their subknown, that the said papers have jects without first pastors, have been printed without his know. established them by their own ledge, that he highly disapprovet authority, and in fact the church of them, that the above edict of Germany appears to be com
pletely abandoned. It is only lowed to transpire to the public with time, patience, and great until all was finished." circumspection, that we can re- In the other parts of Italy, no cover what we have lost. If any public events have occurred durthing could console us, it is the ing the present year, which reconclusion of the negotiations quire historical notice. States with France. That business is formerly independent, having in no longer a mystery. His Holi- the late general settlement of Euness made known in the Con- rope been portioned off among sistory of the 23d, the happy re- greater powers, of whose domisults of the policy of the church nions they are rendered mere apof Rome in that delicate and in- pendages, have lost all political portant affair. This much is said existence, and can only particito be certain—The Concordat pate in the movements of greater concluded under the Government machines. Complaints of conof the Usurper is annulled, and scious debility have been occathings are replaced on the foot- sionally heard; and an account ing of the statu quo established by transmitted from Venice, of the the Concordat between Leo X. depredations practised in the Adriand Francis I. with some modi- atic by Albanian pirates, was acfications. The affair has been companied with an indignant rediscussed directly between the flection on the powerlessness of two sovereigns, by autograph Italy to guard her own seas, which letters. Secrecy has prevailed office was delegated to the marine throughout the progress of the of England, by which it was imnegotiation, and nothing was al- perfectly executed.
CHAPTER CHAPTER XIII.
Germany. --Slow Progress in political Alteration - Hanover, Anneralion
of East Friselund, and Cession of Lauenberg:-Order of Guelph.Assembly of States.- Prussia.--Discussions relative to Representatite Government.- Restrictions on the Press.-Electorate of Hesse.-ron. tinuance of Differences between the King and the States of Huitemberg.--Death of the former, und Acts of his Successor. - Austria, financial Plan.-Death of the Empress, and Marriage of another. Germanic Diet.-Constitution of Weimar.-Switzerland.--Diet.Law in Friburg.
N the great and enlightened kingdom of Hanover take the
country of Germany, the pro- precedence in point of time. gress towards settling the politi- In December 1815, were pub. cal constitution of its different lished by the authority of the states during the present year, Prince Regent, the letters patent hus been much less than was ge- on taking possession for the nerally expected. Whether this crown of Hanover of East Frise. tardiness was owing to the va- land and the land of Harlingen. riety of opinions, prevalent among This appropriation is declared to a people habituated to discussion, be in consequence of a cession and prone to theorize, or to a re. from the King of Prussia con luctance in the governing powers firmed by the powers at the conto admit the governed to a share gress of Vienna ; and the states in their authority, is a matter of of the country are required to conjecture rather than of proof; transfer their allegiance to their but there is reason to suppose, new sovereign, with assurance of that both these circumstances constant atiention to their wel. have co-operated in throwing fare, and protection in their difficulties in the way of bringing rights. to a termination the process of As a kind of indemnity for this forming new constitutions. Mean- accession, that portion of the time the public tranquillity seems Duchy of Saxe Lanienburg which not to have suffered from this in- lies on the right side of the Elbe determinate condition of things; was ceded by Hanover, in July, such disputes as have arisen, hav- to the king of Prussia, to be af. ing been chiefly conducted in the terwards conveyed to the king of quiet mode of lettered argumen- Denmark, as part of the comjentation.
sution adjudged to that Sovereign Of the occurrences in the dif- for his cession of Pomerania to ferent states, those in the new Prussia.
Tho The Prince Regent decorated comparative indigence into which the kingdom of Hanover with an the order of noblesse had fallen, order of knighthood, entitled, that especially within the last ten years. of The Guelphs with the same The public canvassing of this and gradations of honour as those of the other important topics conThe Bath. The insignia of Grand nected with the business under Cross of the Order were sent to consideration, could scarctly be the Brunswick princes, and to the agreeable to a government habireigning prince of Lippe Bucke- tuated to treat political measures burg.
as state secrets; and we accordIn January, the assembly of ingly find, that on the 3rd of Jathe States recommenced its sit. nuary, his Prussian Majesty issued tings, and employed itself in pre. a cabinet order for the supprespaiing a new system of taxation. sion of a paper much read as a In the same month was announced political journal, the “ Rhenish the dissolution by the Prince Re- Mercury." Counsellor Sack, pregent of the special commission, sident of the Prussian provinces created in the preceding April, on the Rhine, wrote to the supefor superintending the internal rior officers of his government, security of the kingdom against acquainting them with this order ; all suspicious persons, whether and also mentioning, that the natives or foreigners.
King was occupied with framing A second meeting of the States a law concerning the freedom of took place in antumn. In the the press, which, for the future, beginning of November, was offi- would reconcile the jarring claims cially declared the appointment of public opinion and the welfare of the Duke of Cambridge to the of the state. In the meantime, office of Lieutenant-Governor of the president desires, that the Hanover.
censors in their respective districts Nothing further of consequence would redlouble their vigilance in is reported from this kingdom, examining all gazettes and poliwhich seems to be enjoying the tical journals ; so that no passages blessings of a well-administered might appear in which injurious government.
attacks were made upon any foNo state in Germany appears reign government, or incompeso much to have excited th in- tent criticisms on the transactions terest of politicians as that of of their own. As there is no Prussiu. At the very commence- test more certain of the disposiment of the year, general atten- tion of governments to favour tion was fixed upon the progress public liberty, than the degree of in forming that representative con- their indulgence to the freedom stitution which was announced in of the press, an inference may be the royal ordinance of May 22d, drawn from the fact above re1815. The question first stand- cited, of the ideas entertained by ing for discussion related to the the Prussian court of those rights establishment of a chamber of of the people which may be adpeers, which encountered many mitted under a monarchy. difficulties, in consequence of the Nothing more of a public na