« НазадПродовжити »
ed in our midst, and seems to increase and multiply and overrun the land with as much fecundity as the rabbit which is devouring the sheep pastures in Australia—the Australians indeed have rather the best of it as they can eat the rabbit, but it would puzzle the hungriest mechanic to dine off a steam engine.
It is true, that until lately political economists have been able to show that so far from the employment of machines diminishing the demand for labour, it has increased it. Railways have employed masses of men to build them, and numbers are still employed to manage them and to convey to and fro millions of people who stayed at home like vegetables, in the good old times. Sewing machines employ thousands of women in making innumerable furbelows that were not thought of in the days of handstitching. Men wear two suits of clothes whose fathers had scarcely one, and machine-made boots cover feet that often used to go bare. Machines too wear out or are super seded by new inventions and have to be replaced ;—people live in larger houses and have more furniture; wants of all kinds have grown with the increased facility and cheapness of supply.
Still there does seem to be a limit to the possibility of consuming more than a certain quantity of anything, and we appear already to have almost reached it, while the capacity for supply is in its infancy. We may live luxuriously, but at last we cannot eat any more, and we cannot wear out any more clothes or more boots and shoes than we do; the Hottentots won't wear flannel waistcoats if they are ever so cheap. Railroads are made almost everywhere, saw mills make more lumber than can be used up, and the warehouses full of goods even with manufactories working half time. To make money or do business the manufacturer must undersell his neighbour, and cheapen production, i.e., improve his machines so as to make them do more
with less cost of wages—his obvious remedy is to increase production while employing fewer hands, and the effect is an increase of the general distress.
The brain power of the world has been intent upon making and perfecting automata to do every kind of work, and the success has been magical; the face of the globe has been transformed, but—the weakest goes to the wall. The machine doing the work of hundreds of men is the property of the capitalist, and earns for him the wages of the supplanted workmen. The colossal fortunes of to-day, outside of the landed aristocracy, belong either to manufacturers or
to the money lenders, who have absorbed the manu. facturer, machine and all, while the supplanted workman starves or is pauperized by charity, and the dangerous classes continually increase.
The workman too has not only been supplanted in his work by the use of machines, but his position has been lowered; from doing the work aided by a machine, he has become the slave of the machine, waiting upon it and tending it with coals and water-the finer work is done for him and he has lost the tasteful skill of hand that belonged to the old artizan. Such noble work as was done of yore by the hand of man can hardly be done at all now, and we have in its place a cheap, monotonous, mechanical imitation. In perfecting the automaton, we have neglected the infinitely finer and more delicate machine, the living man himself.
Is it not time that the artizan should now receive attention, and that at least as much interest should be taken in training him for excellent hand work, as is displayed in perfecting engines for cheap machine work? People of wealth, leisure and taste are beginning to tire of mechanical reproductions, which are necessarily common, cheap and deficient in that subtle quality, charm, and variety, that comes only from the human hand, skilfully directed. For man is like his
Creator in this, that every work of his contribute to the technical educahand is unique. He cannot, if he will, tion of either sex, Drawing, in all its make two things exactly alike. You forms and applications, has been almost may as well expect to find two leaves unanimously regarded as the one which of a tree, two pebbles on the beach, or it is most important to make common.' two grains of sand exactly similar, as Professor Smith in the paper already two works without a difference from mentioned, quotes also from the report the hand of man. Originality to sone of the French Commission on the eduextent, and increasing with the devel- cational system of the United States, opment of his intelligence, is stamped at the Philadelphia Exhibition of by his Maker upon every man and 1876: upon everything that he does.
• Scarcely six years ago, MassachusTo develop the intelligence, culti- etts introduced regular instruction in vate the taste and train the hand and drawing, and the Northern and Westeye to skilful work, is art education ; ern States are rapidly following her and we not only owe it to the artizan
If the last Paris Exposition to give him this education and to lift revealed great advances in English him from below the machine, to his industry, due to the Art movement rightful place above it, but it is our developed, since 1851, by the South interest to do so; it is false reconomy Kensington School, what may we not to leave unused our most precious ma-expect from American activity, stimterial, and it is worse than folly to i ulated by the Philadelphia Exhibiallow the talent and energy,
which tion? Everywhere, already, educamight be most profitable to the coun- tors are pointing out defects, stimulatry, to become in helpless idleness a ting emulation, and they find an echo destructive force.
in the teachers of the schools, as well How best to impart practical cul- as in the employers of labour. France ture (technical education) is one of the must defend that pre-eminence in Art great questions that civilized countries which has heretofore been unquesare trying to solve, and it derives no tioned. She has enormous resources little of its importance from the tacit which ought to be developed by wellacknowledgment, that upon it depends planned primary instruction. With wealth and commercial supremacy. us, as elsewhere, it is not enough to England's system of art education was have excellent special teachers of born of this commercial necessity, and drawing. It is not enough to bave within the last quarter of a century it good courses and good special schools, has enabled her to surpass in the taste all teachers, male and female, must of her designs, as well as in the skill of be able to give the first instruction her workmanship, all her rivals. Her in drawing, in daily classes, to all their progress was virtually acknowledged scholars. France, which has gone to by the French Government, who in work energetically after her misfor1863, appointed an Imperial Commis- tunes, ought to devote herself to the sion to discover the cause.
study of drawing with no less ardour, mission reported in effect that the and reinvigorate her productive powadvance was due to the teaching of ers at the very sources of Art.' drawing in public schools, and to the The following is from the last reestablishment of normal art schools port of the Boston School Committee: and industrial
These The question of teaching trades in words are contained in the report of our schools is one of vital importance. the commission :
If New England would maintain her ' Among all the branches of instruc- place as the great industrial centre of tion, which in different degrees, from the country, she must become to the the highest to the lowest grade, can United States what France is to the
rest of Europe—the first in taste, the 'not had the practical education which first in design, the first in skilled would fit them for work in the workworkmanship. She must accustom shop, and alone would enable them to her children from early youth to the achieve success. The counting-houses use of tools, and give them a thorough and offices are overcrowded by people training in the mechanic Arts.' qualified to carry messages or to count,
To illustrate what has been thought whilst the farms and the factories and and said in the United States about the mechanical trades are languishing the need of reform in popular edu- for want of skilled labour, or are precation, let me give some extracts cariously supporting themselves by from another paper by Mr Walter rude industries. Smith, addressed to the Teachers' • The great need of this country is Association ; and these remarks have the development of its natural reweight, because they come from a sources by skilled labour applied to man trained at South Kensington agriculture and mechanics ; that is, who has given his life to the study the raising of all kinds of food and of the subject, and whose suggestions the raw materials of the industrial of reform have been adopted by the arts ; and secondly, the creation of people of the United States, who are skilled mechanical and artistic labour, sparing not time, nor money, nor en- which shall in the future make the ergy in carrying them out.
country independent of foreign imporHe is speaking of the condition of tation of manufactures, and itself selfthe country as affected by the edu- sustaining. In other words, we want cation of the people, and which of us tillers of the soil and manufacturers of will say
that the words do not equally its products,-farmers and mechanics. apply to Canada, except in so far as Those are the men this country our virgin soil yields richer returns needs to-day more than any other, and than the rocky slopes of New Eng- the only way to produce them on land :
their native soil is to make the eleThe farms are deserted and ren- ments of science and art integral parts dered impecunious by a generation of of all education from the primary people educated above the demands of school until the technical school or inanual toil, though below the require- university has been passed through ments of industrial, productive skill
. and practical life begins. That is what As another consequence, both agricul- we must do to put ourselves upon an ture and manufacturing industry are equality with other industrial natious; alike in a low condition ; for the and until we do so, we shall be hewers literary gentlemen we produce in our of wood and drawers of water to other schools, who are too cultivated to countries possessing greater skill than touch the handle of a plough, are too we possess.' ignorant to grasp and wield the han- • We want to be able to turn out dle of a brush or a hammer. It can- boys from ourcommon schools qualified not be denied that the education of by the elements of practical education, the public schools, excellent as it may and not only able but willing and be to prepare a small number of per- anxious to go out into the wilderness sons, such as clerks, shopmen and the to conquer and subdue it; fit to go like, for the distribution of industrial into a manufactory and through all the products, is out of joint with the needs
steps upwards until the whole business of a vast majority of the people, who is understood and the factory belongs have to become engaged in the pro- to the boy ; or go into a workshop and duction of industrial wealth in a manu- put honesty, taste, and skill, into the facturing community. It must be workmanship ; go upon a ship and acknowledged that this majority have think it more the work of a man to sail the boat than to be a sick passen- has a population of 1,600,000—about ger in her. The want of skill among 400,000 less than that of the Province native mechanics is simply tragical in of Ontario. Their present organizaits costliness and its wastefulness, to tion of Art Schools dates from 1871, say nothing of the vexation and loss before which time all that they did it entails on their unfortunate em- was tentative and experimental, as ployers. The deep-seated cause of all our similar attempts here have been, this is this smirk at physical labour, only that we have had less encouragebecause we have not made provision ment and assistance from public in our schools that manual labour shall opinion. be skilled, and this keeps the more in- An Act of the State Legislature in telligent and aspiring of youths away 1870 obliged every town or city of from it, each one apparently crying
ten thousand inhabitants or upwards out"give me anything, anything to do, to establish free evening drawing except the work of a man." And so, schools, and authorized their establishwhatever may be the dearth of skilled ment, under the direction of the school workmen and qualified master work- committees, in smaller places ; drawmen, the stock of men-milliners is ing was also made part of the regular never exhausted, and you can always instruction in all public schools. In find an Adonis whose occupation is to 1873, the Normal Art School was essell tape, gloves, and blue ribbons, to tablished for the education of teachers young ladies.
of industrial art, and is supported by * Half the indoor occupations which an annual State grant of $20,000, the men now fill, requiring no physical support of the other art teaching and strength or hardihood, should be re- free art schools being made compulsigned to women, who would dis
sory upon the municipalities. charge the duty infinitely better than In the primary schools two hours men can, because of their more per- per week are devoted to drawing, very fect patience and forbearance, fortified small children beginning upon their by equal skill; and the men who are slates. The exercises are, drawing of now hiding behind counters, distribu- geometrical forms with explanation of ting the fruits of industry, should be terms, drawing from flat copies of obengaged in their production, and re- jects, drawing the objects themselves, sign their positions as shopmen and drawing from memory, drawing from book-keepers to the large and in- dictation, and arranging simple forms creasing army of intelligent women in original designs. The ease with who lack employment and deserve it. which children learn to draw, and the And then, let those of whom it has interest they take in their drawing, been said “the glory of a young man
would astonish those who look back is his strength," take a turn in the to the inky fingers and blank despair fields at the plough ; in the workshop, of their early writing lessons. The at cunning craftmanship; in the fac- extent to which accurate recollection tory, providing for the million ; at the of form can be cultivated is displayed ranche, supplying the markets of the in the drawings from memory, and world ; on the broad ocean, ruling the the precise appreciation of language, waves in the interest of civilization ; as proved by the drawing of complex that they may learn and practise the forms from dictation, shows how easily endurance and forethought and gov- a scientific term is understood and reernment and productiveness, of which tained in the mind when the eye has men alone are capable, at their best.' mastered the form or object which it
To show what our neighbours are represents. Perhaps, however, the actually doing in this direction, let us most striking result brought out by take the State of Massachusets. It these drawing lessons is the ingenuity
displayed by young people in original has been attempted in this way. Art design-indeed, for this, children seem schools on a small scale, started and to have a natural aptitude which is carried on by a few persons,
called engenerally crushed out of them as ordi- thusiasts, are doing what they can in nary education or work squeezes thein, the Provinces of Ontario and Quebec. like bricks in a mould, into a dull, The educational authorities are willmonotonous similarity. An instance ing and anxious to move, but they came under my own notice of the son cannot move effectually without the of a wood carver in the City of Boston, support of public opinion. Teachers only ten years old, who, out of school, are trying to introduce drawing into makes designs which his father carves the common schools, but they need to in wood.
be taught themselves. School trustees In the Grammar and High Schools are masters of the situation, and they the same system is carried on into are not always selected for their knowhigher branches of science and art, ledge of science or appreciation of art. and in the City of Boston alone 30,000 Is it presumptuous to suggest this as children are being thus taught.
a theme to be considered and spoken Eye witnesses alone can appreciate of by those who are to be chosen as how much more this plan of educa- our representatives at the forthcoming tion is doing for the rising generation elections to the Provincial Legislature, than has ever been attempted before ; or, at any rate, to commend to the and not many more years will pass by serious attention of the thinking porbefore we have to stand in direct in- tion of the community, who are dedustrial competition with a nation thus sirous of advancing the material in. educated.
terests, and elevating the aims of the In Canada, a little, but a very little, Canadian people?
From the Catalanese of Ausias MARCH (A.D. 1500 circ.)
AM as he, who, when in need of food
To satisfy his hunger's pressing voice,
Before the other one may quench bis thirst,
And so am I by like dilemma curst, —
Crying 'neath two strong winds that beat on it,
For from Levantine shores there meet on it
Thus did two great desires contend in me,
Two gusty passions strive and disagree,