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instruction of the French people for whole, was undoubtedly the most imthe future finally out of the hands of portant place on earth. But its imthe clergy ; and the expulsion of the portance is now greatly diminished, Jesuits is a measure which they have and it can hardly be said to command always had at heart, and on which anything but the Black Sea, to which they may now think themselves strong commerce will always have free access enough to venture.
in time of peace, while no trader will
want to enter it in time of war. Froni In the East, the conclusion of the the occupation of Rome by the new definitive treaty between Russia and Italian monarchy, in the same manner, Turkey closes the diplomatic part of the cousequences were expected to flow the drama, and consummates the august which might have flowed from her ocapplication of the principles of public cupation by a victorious power in her law by the 'Areopagus of Europe.' imperial day. Once the mistress and All the Areopagites will have carried centre of civilization, Rome is now a off those portions of the spoil upon city of antiquities, remote from naviwhich they had respectively set their gation and commerce, and encircled by hearts-Russia, the sections of Ar- malaria. Cyprus was a prize when the menia and Bessarabia ; Austria, the neighbouring coasts of the MediterranHerzegovina and Bosnia ; England, ean, instead of being a desolate cemeCyprus ; while the other great powers, tery of the past, teemed with populaif they have not taken anything at tion and abounded with commercial present, have probably secured some life. Its harbours were good when interest in the future, and have at all the vessels to be sheltered were not events established, by general concur- the monster ironclads of our time, but rence, principles of occupation' and the comparatively diminutive barques
rectification,' which cannot fail to be of the Phænicians, the Ptolemies or convenient to anyone who happens to the Venetians. All the circumstances have an eye on Holland, Denmark, are now changed, but fancy keeps her Belgium, Syria, Tunis or Trieste. eye fixed upon the past.
England is in doubt as to the value The diplomatic embroglio may be of her acquisitions. Cyprus is a dis- at an end and the Treaty of Berlin appointment. It has no harbour, it is may have been formally carried into a perennial abode of fever, and the chief effect; but what England has undereffect of its annexation hitherto has taken is to reform the Ottoman Embeen to increase the number of deser- pire, and having reformed it, to estabtions from the army. Turkish Armenia lish it in its integrity and independit protects about as much as it protects ence,' as the perpetual guardian of Terra del Fuego. A coaling station is British interests in the Eastern Medithe only thing which its apologists terranean. Towards the fulfilment of now contend that it can be. A mis- this design, no progress seems to have leading glamour had been cast by the been yet made. Professions and goddess of beauty round her favourite covenants on the part of Turkey have island. Nor is this the only instance always abounded, but nothing is done. in which diplomacy and statecraft, The Turk himself is the abuse. The with all their shrewdness, have been evil is the domination of a conquering drawn by an historic illusion into the l'ace with a religion which is the spirit pursuit of a shadow. The destinies of of conquest ; and this evil is not likely
; the world are supposed to turn upon
to remove itself or to concur heartily the possession of Constantinople. That in measures for its own removal. Encity, when it was the link between the terprising correspondents of an Eng
Eastern and Western portions of the lish journal have been penetrating the Empire, as well as the capital of the interior of Asia Minor, which has
sunk from its ancient prosperity, not to each other. The struggle will only into a wilderness, but into an some day come, and it can hardly fail unknown land. They find desola- to be fatal to Austria, the motley ele. tion and misery ; in place of a
ments of which are destitute of any government, only the plundering as- bond of union ; that once powerful tie, cendancy of a barbarous horde. Poli- the fear of the Turk, having been reticians deride the chimeras of Utopian moved; while the attempt to fuse speculations; yet they can compla- Magyar, Slav and German into a cently undertake to regenerate a
nation under a single Parliamentary country in which there is not only no government has entirely miscarried. political or social order but no source Assailed by Russia, the Austrian Emof national life, and to make this pire would hardly be able to rely on country a rampart of civilization.
any support but that of the Magyar; They are going back to the old nos- the heart of the Slav would be with the trum. An attempt is being made, enemy, and the German would probaunder the rather suspicious auspices bly seek at once to get clear of the of Sir Austin Layard, to set cn foot wreck and enter the confederation of another Turkish loan. But the cre- the Fatherland. In this direction, produlity even of clergymen and widows bably, we shall have to look for the has probably by this time been ex: opening of the next great series of hausted.
those events, caused by movements of After war comes plague, of which race, which are apparently destined to Turkey in the intoyrity of its filth and break up old combinations, obliterate fatalism has always ren ained the home old landmarks, and cast Europe in a and source. These multiplied horrors new mould. would seem to strengthen the case of those who wished to try at least to solve In Germany, Bismarck and the Emthe Eastern question without a war. peror are grappling with that which, Such, let it be remembered, was the pol. from its present aspect, threatens to icy of the Liberal party in England. be the new and more tremendous They did not want peace at any price. Revolution. But in their persecution They wanted to put forth the power of of Socialism they seem to encounter reEngland, if necessary, to compel the sistance not from the Socialists alone. Turk to cease from the oppression which No doubt the moderate Liberals are all Europe had denounced, and which keenly conscious of the fact that forced the oppressed communities to Socialism itself, as a seditious movecall for Russian aid. That the Turk, ment, is the immediate offspring of when approached with firmness, must the cruel military have complied, it is, as Lord Shaftes- Bismarck and the Court uphold ; bury says, childish to doubt. The virtual though the general loosening in the emancipation of Bulgaria, and proba- German mind of the religious beliefs bly that of Bosnia and the Herzegovina on which the old order of things funalso, would then have been obtained damentally rested, has no doubt been without war, massacre, plague and de- followed in Germany, as it will be in solation ; and the emancipated people other countries, by a sympathetic diswould have looked to England instead turbance of the whole social frame. of Russia, as their deliverer and friend. Failing Parliamentary support, a reThey have been flung into the arms of sort to military force for the purpose Russia solely by despair.
of repression would be quite consistent
with Bismarck's character ; but the Io a dispute arising out of the affairs military system in Germany is, to a of Rournania, Russia and Austria have certain extent, its own political antiapparently been showing their teeth dote. A nation is not to be coerced
by Janissaries when every man of it has been trained to arms. Meantime the King of Bavaria, hy squandering the money of his people in building a more miraculous Versailles, and outvying in other ways the extravagance of Louis XIV., or rather that of an Eastern Sultan, shows that, if he is not mad, there must still be in Southern Germany, at least, a considerable fund of submissiveness in the charac. ter of the people.
Afghanistan has evidently been reduced to an anarchy which will no doubt be bloody, but as bishops are satisfied that this has been done on grounds of distinct ethical validity' and for a “spiritual' purpose, the national conscience may sleep in peace. People are beginning naturally to ask, if this is the true version of Christianity, why they should have left the Church of Thor and Woden. The wave of Jingoism has swept round the full circuit of the Empire, and led to an invasion of the country of Cettewayo, a savage who appears to have mounted sowe steps in the ascent at least of military civilization. For defending his wilds he is styled a
rebel,' a name which belongs to him no more than it did to Caractacus. Of course he will succumb, and his people will share the fate of other na tive races whose lands have been coveted by Europeans. As Mr. Roebuck sil. “the first business of the settler is to clear the country of wild beasts, and the most noxious of all wild beasts is the wild man.' In this war again, missionaries are mixed, and they appear not to recoil from the use of shot and shell as harbingers of the Gospel. Had their spiritual ancestors been of the samo mind, the nations of modern Europe, including England herself, might never have attained their civilized existence. Christian missionaries, throwing themselves without the Martini-Henry rifle or any other ethical'apparatus,
. among tribes probably neither les
wilil nor more gifted by nature than the Zulus, sowed the seeds of civilization together with those of religion, and laid the foundations of European Christendom.
The last, sentence had been just penned when the calamitous news arrived of the destruction of a British column by the Zulus. is great; the wound to a first-rate power is but a scratch, and the disaster, we may be sure, will soon be, if it has not already been, signally repaired. But the event is one which breeds reflection. Barbarians acquire with comparative ease the military part of civilization ; long range weapons have cancelled the ascendancy of drilled masses of troops, and the savage is a skirmisher by nature. If the races which have hitherto been trampled down by the foot of European conquest, learn the use of the rifle, they may some day turn with terrible effect on the conqueror, and in the East especially, the contest hitherto unvarying in its results, may become a much more chequered scene.
The Chinamın, for instance, is reckless of life; his numbers are inexhaustible ; give him the new weapons ; give: bim as organizers and commanders the mercenary soldiers, plenty of whom are now to be found, and the dreams of Chinese conquest which many English adventurers cherish may prove somewhat difficult of fulfilment.
In England, the Government bas won the election for North Norfolk. The seat was theirs before, but they have held it by an increased majority. The constituency is inade up of two elements, a borly of landowners with their tenant farmers, of an eminently agricultural type ; and the great seaport of Yarmouth, which as a separate centre of representation, has been disfranchised for corruption and thrown into the county. This, say the de feated Liberals, is a bad index of national opinion on diplomatic and constitutional questions. It may be so,
but the strength of the Conservative compelled to lower their rents, and party lies in this, that it is not merely there is one applicant for a vacant a party of opinion, but a party of great farm where there were ten before. interests, the landed aristocracy and The English farmer may grow discongentry with their obedient phalanx of tented, and, like the Irish farmer, strike tenant farmers, backed by a great mass for fixity of tenure. In that case the of commercial wealth, and supported political situation in England would at on one flank by the Established once be greatly changed. Every day Church, and on the other by the brings home to us the lesson that, Licensed Victnallers. So long as the frame political institutions as you will, interests hold together, the power of their working is controlled by the sothe party will endure, unshaken by cial forces, without a knowledge of questions of foreign policy or by any which the political observer is lotally questions which do not seem to the at fault. In the months, however, landowner and farmer more important which are likely to elapse before the than the land; to the clergyman, than general election in England, there is the Establishment; to the brewer and reason to believe that the political publican, than beer. The North Nor- alliance between the landlords and the folk election is significant, let the tenant farmers will not only reinain Liberals say what they will. It indi- unimpaired, but be strengthened by cates that, supposing the election to the antagonism of the farmer to the be held in the present frame of the labourer, who is in a state of industrial public inind, though the Government insurrection, and to whom the Liberal will probably lose the cities which party propose to extend the suffrage. they won from the Liberals in 1874, This triple division of the agricultural they are not likely to lose more. interest forms a feature in English English sentiment, however, from the society and politics scarcely found in increase of popular knowledge, inter- those of any other country. course, travelling and intellectual The Conservative leaders seem to stimulants of all kinds, has become thin's it necessary to look out for new infinitely more mobile and variable sources of strength, and we hear of than it and a delay of six months negotiations going on, though at premay utterly falsify the forecast of to- sent unsuccessfully, between them and day.
the Roman Catholics, for the foundaIn the compact confederation of tion of a Roman Catholic University in English Conservative interests, there Ireland. Politicians can hardly be acis one point of possible weakness cused of allowing their tactics to be emwhich the action of economical rather barrassed by prejudices, if they seek than political forces may some day, support at one time by passing an Act and perhaps at a not very distant day, for the suppresion of Ritualism, and disclose. Hitherto the political sub- at another time by founding what, ordination of the tenant farmer to his under the auspices of Cardinal Man landlord has been complete, and at- ning and his Irish lieutenants, would tempts to run farmers' candidates
certainly be an Ultramontane Uniagainst the landlords' candidates in versity. But in an alliance between the counties have almost invariably Conservatism and Ultramontanism, come to nothing. So it has been while thereis nothing unnatural. The Church both interests were prosperous and the of Rome is the great Conservative farmer wils satisfied with his condition Church of Europe, and the great oras a tenant-at-will. But a time of ad- gan of reactionary sentiment of all versity has now come; complaints are kinds; and the numerous secessions to heard that agriculture is no longer a it among the English nobility are remunerative occupation; landlords are produced by influences at least as
much political as religious. Its Hil. debrandic antagonism to emperors and kings belongs to the remote past. It has long subsisted by an alliance with monarchy and aristocracy, the attempt of the more speculative and adventurous spirits among its priesthood, such as Lamennais, to heave anchor and go afloat on the tide of the democratic future, having always come to nothing. In virtue of her political position, the Church of Rome has received, and perhaps in increasing measure receives, the support of men who have no sympathy with her religious system, such as M. Guizot, who was distinctly inclined to uphold the temporal power of the Papacy as a Conservative rallying point, though in religion he was a Protestant and something more. So long as the Ro. man Catholics of Ireland and England were suffering under political disabilities, they were glad to ally themselves with the Liberals for the purpose of breaking that yoke; but having now, by Liberal aid, achieved political equality, they naturally, and irrespectively of any special negotiations or intrigues, gravitate towards the party of social and political reaction. Before long, there will probably be a complete and declared union of the Irish priesthood with the English Tories. On the other hand, the Irish Protestants who have hitherto been Tories, may be expected to come over to the Liberal side. Not only so, but that growing elerrent among the Irish Catholics which is more political than ecclesiastical, and cares more for Home Rule than for the Papacy, is likely also to separate from the Bishops, and to connect itself with the democratic wing of the Liberal party in England.
On their side the Liberals, in view of the coming contest, are exerting then selves to improve their organization. Mr. Chamberlain, M. P. for Birmingham, who is the master spirit in this sphere, seems to have succeeded in inducing most of the cities to form Liberal Associations, and in get
ting the different associations to act together. It is said that this srstem is opposed to the independence of mind which is the Liberal's cardinal doctrine and his boast. There is force in the objection, and it may be added that artificial organization, if not managed with great delicacy and tact, is apt to breed jealousy among the rank and file, to which expression, fatal to the cause, might be given under the cover of the ballot. But party discipline in the case of the Engjish Liberals may plead a justification which it cannot plead in the case of the United States. The English Liberals are fighting against an organization which, though spontaneous, and that of a class not of a caucus, is more tremendously compact and coercive than any caucus which the tyranny of party ever deviseil. Nothing can ex: ceed the force of the social pressure exercised by Conservatism in England, both on the wealthy and on all who are dependent on wealth.
In the rural districts especially, a Liberal, whether he belongs to the upper
class or the lower, has socially to take his life in his hand. In the House of Commons disobedience to the party whip on the Conservative side is al. most unknown. It was matter of perfect notoriety that many Conservatives voted against their declared convictions both for the Suffrage Bill of 1867 and for the title of Empress of India, In the case of the Suffrage Bill, in fact the very men who, at Lord Derby's command, went with downcast looks into the lobby for household suffrage, had a few months before been vociferously cheering the strong anti-extension speeches of Mr. Lowe. Organization has its evils ; but English Liberalism is compelled to choose between organizing and being a rope of sand opposed to a band of iron.
The approaching contest between the parties will be one of unusual interest, because the issues will be remarkably clear and broad. They will vitally