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such as are ordinarily submitted by the architect and an elevation of the building, from which the heights between floors, etc., may be obtained.

The elevation, whether it be of the

As the front of the house we take the end to the left, and the front elevation (Fig. 33), is taken by viewing the work from that point.

The side from which the work is viewed for the side elevations is the side on which the bath room is located. This side view might be taken from the side opposite if desired, and would be as correct a side elevation as the one we have taken.

While not always so, in the present instance the floor plans and plumbing elevations are made on the same scale.

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Fig. 33-Front Elevation of Plumbing. house itself, or of the plumbing, may be taken either from the front or from the side.

In Fig. 32 we give the floor plans of the first and second floors of a residence with a plan elevation showing heights.

The cellar plan is not necessary for the making of the elevation ordinarily, for the elevation cannot usually show the pipes on the cellar bottom to such good advantage as the cellar plan can.

In Fig. 33 we give a front elevation of the plumbing for the house as shown in Fig. 32, and in Fig. 34, the side elevation.

Fig. 34.-Side Elevation of Plumbing. In order to be correct then, distances between certain points on the floor plans must be the same on the elevation. Therefore, in laying out the front elevation, the first thing to do is to lay out the two main lines of vertical pipe at a distance apart from each other equal to the distance between the two pipes which a view

If these facts do not explain themselves readily to our readers, we would advise them to refer back to what we had to say on projection. We have brought it up at this point in order that our readers may get the idea somewhat in their minds, but shall take it up more thoroughly at a later point in this book. In the same way that the distance between pipes is laid out, other measurements are taken. Thus, looking from the front for the front elevation (Fig. 33), we find the lavatory shown on the first floor plan to be at the right of

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NO 2.

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NO 3.

NO 4.

correct and Incorrect Drawing for Fittings. of the house from the front would give.

We wish to make ourselves very clear on this point, as the beginner in drawing often makes a mistake right here. The actual distance between the two lines of pipe as shown in the first floor plan, is the distance from A to C, but in viewing the work from the front, the distance will appear as the distance across from A to B. In the same way in the side elevation the distance between the two pipes will not be the actual distance from A to C, for a view taken by looking at the work from the side will make the distance appear as that from A to D.

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The plans and elevations of any piece of work must always be consistent. Otherwise, they are of no value. The plan of the lavatory just referred to shows that it is set away and from the stack in a certain manner, this we cannot show nearly so well in the elevation. The latter view shows how high the fixture is set, etc., which the plan cannot show. Each view then has its own special .use and value. Now let us compare the two elevations. We shall see that the front elevation is far less clear than the side, and so thoroughly is this true, that we have not shown in the connection for the separate fixtures on the front elevation. In the bath room and kitchen the fixtures come in front of each other, and if we should attempt on this small scale to show all the connections, the work would be so confused and mixed up that it would be useless.

The side elevation, however, shows everything clearly. The comparison of the two elevations makes it clear then, that in making an elevation of the plumbing work of any building from the plans, we should be careful to select that elevation which will show the work most clearly. Indeed, it is sometimes necessary to show one stack as a front elevation, and another on the same work as a side elevation. This we shall consider later on.

In Figs. 35 and 36 we give correct and incorrect methods of drawing certain fittings. No. 1, in Fig. 35, shows a T-Y.

The branch is actually a short one and not carried on a wide sweep, with the branch, but so far .out as No. 2 shows. The depth of hubs should be about twothirds the diameter of the pipe.

The vented T-Y is shown in its correct form in No. 3, and should not be made as in No. 4 with the branch hub too far out, and with the branch too leved. The vent hub should be on the same level as the main hub on the fitting.

In Fig. 36 the branch of the inverted Y should be made at 45 deg., and not at 30 deg., as shown in No. 2. No. 3 shows the correct form of the vent fitting used in connecting the main vent back into the stack. The hubs should not be on the same level as No. 4 shows, and the

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N the preceding chapter we showed

front and side elevations of the plumbing of a residence, and

noted the fact that the side ele vation was by far the clearer, consequently the more valuable of the two. These views were drawn on the

same scale as the floor plans, and as may have been evident to our readers, this scale was so small that it was more or less difficult to trace out the work, and that the smaller details could not be clearly shown. In Fig. 38 we show the principal part of the side elevation men

Fig. 38—The Principal Part of Side Elevation Mentioned, Drawn Double Size.

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