An Essay on the Principle of Population: Or, A View of Its Past and Present Effects on Human Happiness; with an Inquiry Into Our Prospects Respecting the Future Removal Or Mitigation of the Evils which it Occasions
Reeves and Turner, 1872 - 551 стор.
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according Adam Smith agriculture annual appear arising average births to deaths births to marriages calculated capital Captain Cook causes Charlevoix check to population China circumstances classes of society consequence considerable considered cultivation degree demand for labour diminished distress effect emigration employment encourage England Europe evil famine foreign foundling hospitals France George Staunton greater number habits human improvement increase of population industry inhabitants land laws lower classes manner manufactures means of subsistence misery mortality nations nature nearly necessarily necessary Norway number of births observed occasioned parish particularly perhaps period persons polygamy poor poor-laws poverty present prevail preventive check price of corn price of labour principal probably produce prolificness proportion of births proportion of marriages quantity raw produce reason registers Russia Russian Empire scarcity Scotland sufficient supply suppose Sweden tion Tobolsk torn towns tribes Vaud Voyage wages of labour whole population
Сторінка 45 - Is not the whole land before thee? separate thyself, I pray thee, from me: if thou wilt take the left hand, then I will go to the right; or if thou depart to the right hand, then I will go to the left.
Сторінка 13 - Population invariably increases where the means of subsistence increase, unless prevented by some very powerful and obvious checks. 3. These checks, and the checks which repress the superior power of population, and keep its effects on a level with the means of subsistence, are all resolvable into moral restraint, vice, and misery.
Сторінка 8 - The positive checks to population are extremely various, and include every cause, whether arising from vice or misery, which in any degree contributes to shorten the natural duration of human life. Under this head, therefore, may be enumerated all unwholesome occupations, severe labour and exposure to the seasons, extreme poverty, bad nursing of children, great towns, excesses of all kinds, the whole train of common diseases and epidemics...
Сторінка 305 - ... for setting to work all such persons, married or unmarried, having no means to maintain them, and use no ordinary and daily trade of life to get their living by...
Сторінка 490 - Several writers had said that it is the tendency of population to increase faster than the means of subsistence.
Сторінка 11 - It very rarely happens that the nominal price of labour universally falls; but we well know that it frequently remains the same, while the nominal price of provisions has been gradually rising. This, indeed, will generally be the case, if the increase of manufactures and commerce be sufficient to employ the new labourers that are thrown into the market, and to prevent the increased supply from lowering the money price.
Сторінка 430 - Though to marry, in this case, is in my opinion clearly an immoral act, yet it is not one which society can justly take upon itself to prevent or punish ; because the punishment provided for it by the laws of nature, falls directly, and most severely upon the individual who commits the act, and through him, only more remotely and feebly on the society. When nature will govern and punish for us...
Сторінка 272 - It is a perfectly just observation of Mr. Godwin, that, "There is a principle in human society, by which population is perpetually kept down to the level of the means of subsistence.
Сторінка 221 - In those parts of the country where the population has been rather diminished by the introduction of grazing, or an improved system of husbandry which requires fewer hands, this effect has chiefly taken place; and I have little doubt that in estimating the decrease of the population since the end of the last, or the beginning of the present century...