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watchful care of that pleasant body the Roman Catholics, and it does seem hard that if we are to live under the disability of a Catholic University we should not enjoy the privileges of a good modern language school, such as has always been insisted upon even by the Jesuits.
UNIVERSITY OF GRANADA. In my former letter I gave you a slight sketch of the foundation of our University, and a cursory glance upon the present state and number of the colleges of the city of Granada, and the studies pursued in our University. In this present one I purpose to write a few words, from a Spanish point of view, on the burning question of the day in England—whether secular studies should be joined with religion. It is my opinion, based upon a long experience and much thought on the subject, that religion is the foundation, and must be the necessary basis, of all civilisation, and most certainly should not be excluded from the studies pursued in colleges and universities, as many of your learned men in England seem to maintain. It is certainly a fact that we Spaniards have, during the last hundred years, changed very considerably in this respect, and that the teaching of the present day is not so collegiate as it was formerly; that is to say, that we do not give to our University Schools that great and due importance which was formerly given them by our illustrious predecessors, on which account so many usages and scholastic customs have disappeared, such as wearing the cap and gown, and many ceremonies and commemorations; and it is also a fact that, consequent upon the secularisation of instruction, the clergy no longer exercise the intervention which they should, nor do our Universities any longer boast that they are pontifical and ecclesiastical as they were from their institution. This secular spirit extends even to the point of lessening the number of ecclesiastics as professors; in our University, for instance, we possess but one clerical professor.
The secondary institutions of learning, founded with an expressly secular object, are yielding poor results even of the scientific order. But, thanks to the deep-rooted catholicity of our land implanted by the glorious Apostle Saint James, which no foreign dominion has been able to eradicate or
substitute for, we have not reached that derangement of ideas which has, alas ! swept over other countries. Rationalism has, and still finds, few votaries ainong the learned in Granada; especially in the faculty of philosophy and the learned professions to which I belong, the purely catholic element and scholastic philosophy largely preponderates. This catholic spirit pervades and shines generally in the inaugural addresses, such as the one read in 1876 in honour of Dr. Francisco Suarez, of the renowned Society of Jesus. This year, and the former one, our rector and many professors attended chapel in full academic robes, on the festival of St. Thomas Aquinas, to celebrate the religious services held on that day. In the other educational establishments, the clerical element and influence greatly predominate, particularly in the colleges ; that is to say, in Granada, the Seminario Conciliar, or diocesan school, the College del Sacro Monte, and in the Escuelas Pias. Throughout Spain, primary education, which is certainly the principal and most important department, forming as it does the basis for other studies and of morality,
is unfortunately not so well attended to as we should wish, and this is also the case in Granada, although few cities can boast of so many colleges, seminaries, schools, academies of belles-lettres, industrial schools, economic societies, and literary establishments, which would lead many to infer at first sight that all was done that could be desired. This deficiency of primary education is the more deeply to be deplored when we take into account the ardent imagination of the Andalusians, which eminently fits them for literature rather than for science ; although we must not forget that some have brilliantly distinguished themselves even in this latter quality, for Andalusia has produced among her sons such famous historians as Fernando del Castillo y Marmol ; great preachers like Francisco de Toledo, and Fray Luis de Granada ; and eminent theologians, geographers, physicians, and learned jurisconsults. But the mass of the people who cannot aspire to enter the universities, colleges, and schools, to obtain the education which they would there find, supply this deficiency by legends, tales, and romances—a field which of itself constitutes a species of oral or traditional literature. Politics have also mingled in these traditions, renderings of popular proverbs and sayings, patriotic songs and poems, which ever keep before the minds of our people the past glories of our country, and inspire them with a love of independence.
Were I to speak of the character, customs, and habits of the people of this province and city of Granada, I should begin by saying that they possess the traits of character common to the natives of all Andalusia, a character which partakes largely of the oriental element. They are not reserved like the Castilians, nor have they the fierceness of the Aragonese, the haughtiness of the Vizcayns, the callousness of the Catalans, or the levity of the Valencians. As a rule they are inclined to boastful. ness, speak much of themselves, of their worth and riches, are naturally fond of ostentation, and rather pompous in their speech ; yet we must add that they are not wanting in valour and heroism. They are merry and festive, their gaiety being accompanied by a certain simplicity and gravity of manner which is particularly observable in the dwellers of the mountains, who are frank, social, tender-hearted, and, with few exceptions, laborious. They are, moreover, gifted with a sharp wit, quick imagination, and great facility of expression. These qualities are found even in the inhabitants of hamlets destitute of all means of instruction, in whom none can help admiring the natural clearness evinced in their comprehension of ideas, no less than a certain cleverness and propriety in the modes of arranging their words and of expressing their ideas. Their social intercourse is gentle ; and, though their customs largely participate of their native simplicity of character, yet in our capital I see a great leaning towards imitating the ostentation of the higher classes, which oftentimes is certainly far from being warranted by their wealth or social position.
Our climate most undoubtedly must needs exercise its influence upon the character of the natives of Granada. Who of those that live under the purest of skies could help being merry and light-hearted ? Who of those that tread our luxuriant soil could be aught but generous and open-handed? And, feeling the scorching rays of the sun, our people are apt to become as vehement in their hatreds as in their affections.
Would you form a true estimate of the gentle, merry, and religious character of the people, and be truly amused by a graceful scene full of
animation, you should come and witness the annual excursion and a sort of national pic-nic which takes place on the 2nd of January in the Alhambra, in commemoration of the conquest of Granada; or mingle, on the 1st of February, in the festival of San Cecilio, the patron saint of this city; or visit the shores of the Darro on the evenings of the Feasts of Saint Peter, and on those of Saint John, in the gardens of the Gracia; or join the crowd on the 29th September, when the piety and devotion of the people take them to the elevated sanctuary of San Miguel el Alto. Whole families are seen wending their way luxuriating in the soft breezes of this delightful climate, and encamping in groups in the gardens, among the trees, and all about the rugged declivities of the mountains, forming a truly picturesque scene. Much more could I tell you, did I not fear to prove tedious, and of deviating from the plan laid down of the “Spirit of the Universities ;" but what I have written, I think you will agree with me, is necessary to give some idea of the character and pursuits of our people, so little known in England.
I have been spending a few days in Malaga during the vacations, before resuming my duties in the University as professor, and, when time and opportunity offer, I will send you a few more lines, and keep you au courant of anything that passes here which may be of interest.
Egyptian Belief and Modern
and Modern omissions or through a happy Thought. By James Bonwick, blindness, to a preconceived idea of F.R.G.S. London : C. Kegan what such very non-canonical lore Paul and Co. 1878.
as the Egyptian Scriptures must Mr. Bonwick's book of last year, necessarily portend. Fortunately “Pyramid Facts and Fancies," was this mode of treatment is becoming in some respects a more satisfactory more and more rare, and indeed is work than the present one. Its becoming impossible in works value consisted in its being a col- designed for a general currency. lection of all the pyramid theories But though we prefer Mr. Bonthat could anywhere be found wick's universalist course to the good, bad, and indifferent; plausi- sectarian method, we must admit ble, suggestive, or absurd. It was that we prefer to his the scholarly what its title denoted-facts and plan of working only on the results fancies. But the work now before of the most careful philologists, or us is of more solid pretension, and on the rules of investigators, who its title does not well admit of its wait for evidence, instead of rushbeing made the receptacle of the ing into rash hypothesis. The absurd theories discredited ostensible object of Mr. Bonwick's fancies of too hasty speculators book is " to collect information," upon the unsolved problems of the which is a very different matter Egyptian traditions. For instance, from listening to gossip. It is but we are told that "by the rule of fair to state that “ Egyptian Belief Higgins's “Anacalypsis, kings and Modern Thought contains whose names end in cheres, as a very large and valuable collection Mencheres, builder of the Third of information, well arranged under Pyramid, were renewed incarnations clearly defined heads, and may be of the cheres ; that is, were all the most useful to those for whom it same individual.” This might be is intended-persons “ with little vastly interesting if Godfrey leisure for research.” Higgins's rule commanded equal The heads of Mr. Bonwick's respect with Grimm's laws, or with chapters are as follows: a scientific formula ; but Higgins “Primitive Religion of Egypt; wrote before much was known of Funeral Rites of the Egyptians ; Egyptian roots; and such a theory Immortality of the Soul; Amenti as his so-called “rule” should or Hades; Heaven; Purgatory; either have been included among Hell ; Resurrection of the Dead; fancies about Egypt, or should Re-Incarnation, or Transmigration have been accompanied by a real of Souls; Gods and their Meaning; investigation of the roots of the The Myth of Osiris; Egyptian royal name in question.
Bible; Symbolic Religion ; Animal On the other hand, we would Worship; Tree Worship; Ancestor rather meet with faults of this Worship; King Worship; Sex kind than be presented with a Worship; Serpent Worship; Sun partial and mutilated production, Worship; Sphinx Worship; Obecarefully adjusted, by ingenious lisk Worship; Pyramid Worship;
Sirius Worship; Star Worship; his feet toward the land of the Religion of Magic; Religion of the south ; lord of the heathen, prince Mysteries ; Priests and Priestesses; of Punt (Arabia); the ancient of Temple Worship ; Sacrifices; heaven, the eldest of the earth; Prayers; Unity of God; The lord of all existences, the support Trinity; Messiah and Logos Wor- of things, the support of all things. ship; The Millennium; The Sabbath The ONE in his works.—Good being, Day; Circumcision; Baptism and begotten by Ptah.--King Ra, true the Eucharist; The Last Judg- speaker, chief of the world-in ment."
whose goodness the gods rejoice.It seems to us an error in judg- Lord of eternity, maker everment to place in the heading of a lasting; gracious ruler, crowned chapter such a word as Messiah. with the white crown, lord of Taken in its conventional meaning, beams, maker of light-consuming it can only perplex in connection his enemies with fire; whose eye with Egyptian thought; taken in subdues the wicked.—Hail to thee, its varying historical significations, Ra, lord of truth-listening to the it could only fairly head a chapter poor who is in distress, gentle of in which these were discussed. heart when one cries unto him :
The Egyptian remains must ever deliverer of the timid man from the be interesting to the studious violent, judging the poor-lord of mind, for they are the record of mercy most loving ; at whose what we cannot but allow to have coming men live-to whom the been the most majestic civilisation sixth and seventh days are sacred ; of the ancient world yet revealed to sovereign of life, health, and us, whether we regard its perfec- strength-whose name is hidden tion in handicrafts, stability of from his creatures ; in his name internal administration, spiritual which is Amen (hidden). Hail to altitude of thought, or immense thee, who art in tranquillity. Thy extent of duration. For the casual love subdues (all) hands - (all) reader the Egyptian documents hearts are softened at beholding must have a fascination until the thee. The ONE maker of existstartled feeling wears off at the ences.-The ONE alone with many appearance of revered truths in old, hands - Amen, sustainer of all strange guise. It must bring things—We whom thou hast made rather an expansive influence to (thank thee) that thou hast given bear upon the rigid doctrinal mind us birth; we give thee praises on to find such a hymn as the follow. account of thy mercy to us.ing, which Mr. Bonwick cites from Beloved of Aptu (Thebes) ; high a translation made by the late Mr. crowned in the house of the obelisk Goodwin from the papyrus at (Heliopolis). The ONE alone withBoulaq, and to learn that it was, in out peer-living in truth for ever,” all probability, in existence in etc. writing at Heliopolis at the time Mr. Bonwick very fairly comwhen Moses was instructed there : ments as follows:
“ Praise to Amen-Ra, the bull in “If this language, breathing An (Heliopolis), chief of the gods, sentiments which do honour to the good god beloved, giving life heart as well as intellect, means to all animated beings, to all fair nothing more than vulgar, matecattle. Hail to thee, Amen-Ra, rialistic sun worship, then must the Lord of the thrones of the world, devotional phraseology of the Holy chief in Aptu (Thebes), strong son Scriptures be equally susceptible of his mother in his field; turning of the same interpretation, and