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the deity Voden, Woden, or Odin (old Egyptian kam, a reed ; Sanscrit, German wuotan), the equivalent of kalm ; Hebrew, gome, reedgrass, the Hermes or god of wisdom. From rush; Greek, kalapos ; Arabic, Woden it comes to us as Wednesday, galam; German, halm; French, and it were to be hoped, if it were chaume, stubble ; English, halm, not too much to hope, that with haulm, are evidently one word. such an ancestry we could all have more singular word-history at least one wise or witty day in a still may be found in the following. week.

Among the deities of the Veda, Another word which also signifies which gives the most ancient trace to know appears in our language of the Aryans in India, is Varuna, in the verbs ken, can, con, acquaint, the sky, and the god who resides in and know, and in the adjectives the sky. It is easy to perceive the canny and cunning. It is Gothic connection between Varunas, the kunnan ; Anglo-Saxon, can, cennan, nightly firmament, and the Greek and cnawan ; Swedish, kunnig and oủpavós, the heaven or the sky kvanna ; Dutch and German, (ouranos, which might, with the kennen; Danish, kan; Sanscrit, gnâ, obsolete Greek letter vau, have gânâmi; Zend, hunara, Pazand, been written vouranos). It is not khunar (science), also Zend vaen, until we come to Egypt, however, and Pazand vinastan and ginastan, that we reach the origin of the to perceive; Greek, yuvớO KELV; Latin, word. There the great water of cognoscere ; old French, connoistre. the Nile was worshipped as a perFrom these roots — knowledge sonification of the beneficence of conveying power—come the words nature. As to the Egyptian this signifying king, old English cyning, mighty stream seemed to make a German könig, and possibly the highway through the world, so was Tatar khan.

there imagined to be a splendid An Aryan ancestry of language spiritual highway through the is here pretty clear, but there is no firmament. Along this the dissign in the words given of Egyptian embodied spirit was supposed to or Hebrew brotherhood.

pass on its journey to the Unseen. Before turning more particularly This highway was the Urnas, or to our Aryan forefathers, it may be celestial water, personified as a interesting to give a few instances deity of the sky. The derivation in which the connection between of this word may perhaps be ura, the older languages is readily to be great, and na, water, the hierotraced.

glyphic symbols for which roots In Egyptian hieroglyphs may be both appear in the sign representing found mâs, anoint; masu, anoint, urnas. We seem to have had the dip. In Zend mashyâ is clarified word handed down to us English butter. In Hebrew and Syriac mes folk not only in the Urania and siah, meshihha, in Arabic masih, other variations which we draw signify anointed. In Egyptian from Greek, but in the word urn khab, Assyrian caccabu, Hebrew or water vessel, and in another kôhhabi, alike signify a star.

word signifying water, employed We find in Egyptian makheru, now in a limited sense. justified, especially in reference to An element transferable from the dead after judgment ; in generation to generation, and from Assyrian magaru, obedient, happy; race to race, which would appear to in Greek pákap, blessed, happy, be as indestructible as etymological especially an epithet of the lately roots, is spiritual thought or philodead.

sophy; that is, the results of such

earnest speculations, wise deduc- expresses himself with some caution tions, rare inspirations, and pure respecting these foreign influences, revelations, as, with the addition of but even he cannot but allow that ceremonial specialties, doctrinal they were of the highest importpetrifactions, and prejudices and ance :-“ The analogies between beliefs whose inner meaning has the Persian creed of the time and been forgotten, make up the reli. the Judaism of the captives is so gious tradition of a nation.

striking that we may fairly doubt Our own system we draw from which have most influenced the the Hebrews, whose oriental ideal. other; we only see clearly the ism we have hardened by our extraordinary and radical change occidental practicality into a doc- which, within the space of a few trinal body of our own.

generations, came over the exiles Similarly the Hebrews, apart under the influence of the civilisafrom what was mystically born tion and religion of Persia.” among them (all great ideas, as we We have three reasons, then, know them, are in part a renewal for our interest in the Aryan of old ones, and in part a new legacy :-We have an Aryan strain birth of earth and heaven acting in our blood, derived from the upon ourselves), drew largely from westward emigrants; we own as Egypt in their early days, from subjects a considerable group of Assyria in a later day, and the eastern emigrants; and our reli. from Medo-Persian influences later gious traditions are derived from a still.

so-called Semitic tribe that claimed The head of the Hebrew tribe to have its origin somewhere in was a Chaldean nomad, and the that sweet ancient spot between the people themselves were directed rivers where the spiritual myth of (Deut. xxvi., 5) to make acknow. Eden was attempted to be localised. ledgment of their origin thus :- And before those traditions were “A Syrian wanderer was my delivered to us they had received a father, and he went down into new and great religious impulse Lower Egypt, and sojourned there from the long sojourn of the people with a few men, and became there among purely Aryan surroundings, a nation.”

and under the influence of the reliIf we affiliate ourselves to the gious and scientific caste of the Hebrew traditions, we have a son's Medes and Persians. right to examine into that lore's We may yet have other interests ancestry.

in old Aryana, or at least in its The links with Assyria, manifest western borders : it is strange, ing themselves in parallel deluge indeed, for instance, that English legends, dovetailing records of enterprise and Hebrew patriotism events and kindred elements of together should not ere now have language, we will not here recount, bought Syria from its bankrupt but turn to the Babylonian influ. sovereign, and by making a track ences of the second captivity, a through the mid-river valleys to time when the Assyrian empire the Persian Gulf, have reopened fell and a Medo-Persian sove- the fabled garden of the world. reignty was established. Then Now that the rich land has lain flourished in great power and fallow so long, is it not time to repute the Magi or priestly caste, cleanse out its ancient choked who at that time were followers of canals, and banish the desolation the Zoroastrian religion. The late that broods over it-a desolation Emanuel Deutsch, being a Jew, that is not so fatalistic but that it would flee before the busy hand of the other life, between the know. man?

ledge acquired by study and exThe language of the ancient perience and the inborn celestial Aryans, whose traditions are now wisdom of the pre-existent Spirit. represented by the scanty remnant God is ruler through the good of the Bombay Parsis, is the sister mind. Immortality and wholeof the Sanscrit of the Vedas. The someness are the attainment of the Mohammedan extension of the soul of the pure. Punishment is seventh century drove out the Maginot arbitrary for shameful deeds, from their ancient haunts, but but the wicked man's own hatred the Masdayasnian or Zoroastrian for good impels him away from doctrines are not yet quite extinct, good. Whatever we do is stored in even after their continuance for the dwelling place of the heavenly four thousand years. The Parsis singers, and meets us, when come themselves are working like western the increasers of the days, the holy students at the gathering up of ones who assist at the resurrection; the fragments of their scriptures; and when the weightiest life begins, and, as regards ourselves more par- which is the destruction of the ticularly, we do not yet know how terrestrial creation. much we are contributing to the Philosophy, astronomy, and law preservation of these thoughts, in are ascribed to Zoroaster. And the sacred literature we hold so dear, the race which had attained these until we know how much we owe powers soon began to spread and to the sojourn of the Jews in extend itself. Babylon, at the time when that city The mythical region from which fell under Medo-Persian rule. it originally springs, its semi

The date when the prophet fabulous Eden, is Airyana-vaêjô Zoroaster (Zarathustra) flourished (Sanscrit, Erangvejadesha; Pazand, is considered by those who have Era-vezh). This is Iran the pure, the best right to form a judgment of the good creation. It was a to be about 2300 B.C., and the field creation of delight, but unap. of his earliest influence to have proachable, else the whole corporeal been Bactria, the modern Bokhara world would have gone after it. Here was a great trade centre for But a curious historical reminismerchants dealing with the woollen cence appears to mingle with the and the gold, and manifold other legend of Paradise. After the conproducts, of central Asia.

trariety of the earth life has maniBalkh (Bakhdi, Berekhdha in fested itself, the region of bliss is the Zend Avesta) was the capital found to have ten months of winter city, and in the great fire temple and only two of summer. This there the seer is supposed to have would point to the north of the preached to a large audience whom route from Turkestan to China, or he addresses as “those that have to the territory now known as come from near and from far.” Siberia. The antithesis here is

He declares that the wise (the very singular, and reminds us of seven immortal benefactors or arch another garden legend, where the angelic beings, who are all personi. primitive state is perfection, the fications of qualities and emana- after condition one of briars and tions from God) have manifested thorns. In the undisturbed city, this universe as a duality. There men live long; there is no weeping, is a contrariety between the life. no falsehood, no avarice. In every giving and the destructive powers forty years, from one woman and in this world, between this life and one man, one child is born. Their

. law is goodness and their religion consisted of two millions of verses; the primeval religion, and when a development which, it has been they die they are righteous. Their said by competent authorities, ruler is a messenger angel from would require the effluxion of a God, Srôsh the obedient, and their thousand years. chieftain a homotaurus, who lives In the ninth century B.C. the on the seashore.*

Medes were an independent and From this very inconsistent distinct people, whom the As. region the Aryans emigrate in syrians (in a monument of 880 bands. Sogdiana, Mervè, Mar- B.C.) claim to have defeated. giana, Bactra, Nisa, Herat, Cabul, Probably in the earlier references Candabar, Arachosia, Etymander, to them they were not differentiated Khorasan, India, and Ragha in from the general Aryan stock. Media are more or less identified In the eighth century B.C. as the quarters of the Orient over Ecbatana, the Median capital, was which they squatted, the designa built. In the Book of Tobit is a tions being according to modern or reference both to this city and classic names.

also to the ancient city Ragha, the Herodotus tells us that the Medes capital of the earliest Aryan settlewere anciently called by all people ment in Media, according to the Aryans. They were indeed Aryans, Zend Avesta. In this century, and probably the most important too, a Median monarch conquered of the groups of emigrants, perhaps Persia, and his granddaughter the mother-tribe. They must have married a Persian noble, and extended themselves even to the became the mother of Cyrus. south-west of what was afterwards Afterwards we find the Medes Media proper, for in 2234 B.C. and Persians regarded as a sort of Babylon, which so often in after twin race. They had descended days changed hands, became the from the same mother Arya, and seat of a Median dynasty. It each seems to have helped the seems probable that Armenia, too, other. Media was the cradle of the was in part absorbed by these Persian power, producing a hardy dominant Aryans, for an inscrip- race, breeding fine horses, and tion of Sargon at Khorsabad, themselves not to be bought by gold. describing Assyrian victories Under Cyrus the fortunes of Persia (eighth century B.C.) refers to obscured the name of the Mede; far-distant Media, stretching on. but the latter was the more ward to Albania. That is to say advanced in the arts, and the -past Ararat toward the north. influence of the Magian tribe was

We have not at present any con- prominent in the Persian system. nected history of the Zoroastrian The book of the chronicles kept Medes from their earliest period. by the learned caste was ever History says little more of them before the monarch for his instructhan does the Book of Genesis, tion. which (x., 2) refers to the Madai The Medo-Persian empire exas of the descendants of Japheth. tended itself over all the Asiatic But their literature makes us con- regions that lie between the scious of their presence. It was Mediterranean and the Indus. spoken of by tradition some two Luxury followed upon the increase centuries before our era as having of wealth and centralisation; and

* Vide, Avesta, Vendidad, Fargard I. Mainyo-i-khard, XLIV. and LXII.

benu.

the stern Macedonian at length lonia, remained a centre of Jewish overran the whole empire, and colleges from the time of the exile brought in a new dynasty and a for several centuries, and was the new régime. In the burning of seat of learning which produced the palace at Persepolis, through a Hillel the Great, who left Babylon foolish weakness of Alexander, the to take the Presidency at Jeruroyal copy of the Zoroastrian salem. scriptures was destroyed, and by That beautiful patriotism which far the greater part of them is not took the exiles home, did, notwithnow extant. Perhaps, as the standing, in spite of the cosmoscriptures of other nations have politan influences that had been been so unexpectedly recovered, acting upon them through their there may yet be found among intercourse with other peoples, ruins at Pasargada, Ecbatana, eventually give rise to a very Ragha, Susa, or Persepolis, some narrow and bigoted Judaism. records of Aryan thought, as it was That this Judaism was at no both before and at the date of the time supreme, may be seen from cuneiform inscriptions of Darius. the foreign elements that are to be The language in which what we found in the Apocalyptic and have of the Aryan scriptures Apocryphal books, the Talmud, is written is older than that and the New Testament. variety of cuneiform. The more The Talmud affirms that the modern Parsi books, such as were very names of the angels the Jews gathered, translated, or composed learned in Babylon. They had, in the early centuries of our era indeed, learned what became the under the Sasanian dynasty of Kabbalistic theory of existence; Persia, are still faithfully Žoro. and, with a beautiful angelistic astrian, and serve to explain the faith, had borrowed also a too allusions in the older books. There large reliance upon the petty is, therefore, something substantial powers of demonology. to turn to when we seek to examine I t has been said that, while the the influences that so strongly Hindus and the Greeks regarded affected our religious ancestors, the as animated the whole of nature, Hebrews, when they came under the Persians imparadised the the Medo-Persian rule during the creation as being the abode of period of their stay in Babylonia, angels. Different nations explore consequent upon the various depor- different channels of the alltations of Nebo-kudurri - ussur pervading life. in the sixth century B.C. Some The origin of man is always never returned from this and the likely to be a matter of interest; earlier transportations, having we will accordingly gather together become naturalised in the strange from the various corners where it land which they had been carried lies in fragments the legend of the off to populate, and having obtained, Aryan protoplast, and endeavour to some of them, political employment, rehabilitate our mythical ancestor in others a comfortable position with order to compare him with his foreign servants under them, others Hebrew congener. again a profitable opening for First must be exhumed an traffic. Even the literary classes ancient theory which we will ven. did not all return to Judea at the ture to designate that of double time of the patriotic revival, when evolution. One process is confined to Jerusalem was allowed to be re. the physical world, regarded as the established. Nahardea, in Baby. nidus of life. In the Aryan mytho

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