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tions, and show a personification Pallas, too, has universal attriof natural powers within a wide butes : poetic pantheism, which has, with

wisdom to the good, the enlightened worshipper at And to the evil, madness : parent least, a monotheistic centre. Though nymphs, demons, the muses, the And counsel: thou art male and furies, the Fates

female too: “ Unchanged, aërial, wandering in

Multiform dragoness, famed enthuthe night,

siastic." Untamed, invisible to mortal sight,”

The goddess Demeter is the and dwelling by the Stygian river, "giver of all things,'

"giver of all things," "supporter of in Pluto's hidden realms, where all mortals ”; blessing man with

plenteous means

of life, “ White waters of the lake,

mother Nature is yet. And in Falling into the sea with silvery

a personification of Nature as a whirls,

deity we may see how a subordi. Burst from fountain hid in

nate member of the Pantheon can depths of night,"

be invested with universal attriare treated each and all as indi- butes to the extent of a particular vidual powers, and there is a host sphere of influence, without inof powerful deities, to whom wor- fringing upon the supreme unity ship is due, yet is Zeus—“ multi- of the Father of Gods. form deity -within and at the In the Orphic or pseudo-Orphic back of all, the root and breath of system we find, further, a lower all things.

In this pervasive range of divine personages having power even the subordinate deities relation to human life, but not share, as being manifestations of credited th the attribute of uni. divinity. In the address to Herè

“ The Divinity of we have an example of this rather Dreams” is addressed as follows: complicated kind of pantheism :

“Great source of oracles to human“ All things producing, for the

kind, breath of life

When stealing soft, and whispering Without thee nothing knows : since

to the mind, thou, with all

Through sleep's sweet silence, and Thyself in wondrous sort commu

the gloom of night, nicating,

Thy power awakes the intellectual Art mixed with all.”

sight, In the invocation to Apollo, To silent souls the will of Heaven there is naturally a trace of the

relates, ancient sun-worship:

And silently reveals their future “ whose lucid eye

fates." Light-giving all things views

this plenteous earth, Phanes or Protogonos, the exAnd ev'n beneath thro' the dark emplar of the universe, is a divine womb of things,

emanation, an effulgence of the In night's still, gloomy regions, and glory, and an express image of the beyond

substance, so to speak, of the Th' impenetrable darkness set with Supreme. The Hebrew Angel of stars."

the Presence and the gnostic Logos Diana is addressed as great are similar personifications of the nurse of mortals, earthly and powers and agencies of God. The celestial," "dread universal queen." First-Born is thus addressed:

versal sway.

“O mighty first-begotten, hear my would seem that little attention prayer,

is its due from the point of view Twofold, egg-born, and wandering of either theism or sublime ethics. thro' the air;

Pagan polytheism, with the rude

morals of a barbarous, if heroic 'Tis thine from darksome mists to time, this has by many been purge the sight,

thought to be all to be expected All-spreading splendour, pure and from Homer. This, indeed, is to be holy light."

found there, and many a contraDeath is invoked in the same

diction is to be found within that strain of poetical pantheism :

external polytheism, as well as

many a questionable example in " Thy sleep perpetual bursts the

the sphere of morals. But there is vivid folds

more in Homer than this. We By which the soul-attracting body

find, in Indian works meant for the holds."

people, instances where a bright Thomas Taylor finds in Porphyry narrative is designed as a thick an explanation of the meaning coating of sugar for a small ethical here, and bases a comment thereon pill. We find in Druidic tradition in a style almost purely Buddhistic: verses in which the memory is in“Though the body, by the death geniously cozened into taking up a which is universally known, may morsel of moral counsel interlarded be loosened from the soul, yet, in the easiest and brightest of while material passions and affec- stanzas. The moral traditions of tions reside in the soul, the soul primitive peoples, by whom moral will continually verge to another aphorisms are prized more highly body, and as long as this inclination than among the over-cultured and continues remain connected with sceptical, are wont to be transbody. But when, from the pre- mitted in the form of pithy sendominance of

intellectual tentious maxims, which easily pass nature, the soul is separated from current amongst unstudious and material affections, it is truly simple folk and grow into a treasury liberated from the body, though of proverbial lore. the body at the same time verges

The Homeric singers wrought and clings to the soul, as to the in this fashion; and scattered over immediate cause of its support.” the writings that have come down

The Homeric cycle of poems, to us are to be found by searching whether the work of one or of a a number of little fragments, group of rhapsodists, is really the which, if gathered, would be refirstfruits of Greek literature. The cognised as an appreciable conOrphic writings claim to be earlier by tribution to ethics. some three to four centuries, and no Mr. Gladstone goes further than doubt there was bardic tradition this when he says: “ The morality from the Argonautic times; but in of the Homeric man is founded on all probability, in passing from the duty, not to the particular perreputed Orphic remains to Homer, sonages of the Olympian system, we pass up and not down the but to the divinity, theos, or the stream of time.

gods in general, theoi. Sometimes Homer being in


to Zeus ; not however as the mere hearty and vivid naturalism, with head of the Olympian Court, but what it has of the supernatural, as heir-general to the fragments clearly designed for the generality, and relics of the old monotheistic whose superh bible it became, it traditions."


of a


It is becoming generally re- lished after the great eastern cognised that in all religions two migration. The absence of all forces have been at work :

abstract or metaphysical ideas that of the more spiritual minds from Homer is truly remarkable. in cleansing the vision of the Of all poets he is the most objecmental eye that has turned toward tive, and the least speculative." It God, and in the concentration and is perfectly true that Homer is deepening of the impression of most poetically free from mystical Heaven's relation to us. The other obscurities, and that the formal force has been that of the un- philosophy of Greece began after awakened minds disintegrating and his time; but we ought scarcely to distorting all grand conceptions, deny to the Homeric cycle of splitting up large ideals into small, ballads the possession of a fair and requiring even minor abstrac- quantity of the current coin of a tions to be showily clothed as the simple philosophy. Indeed, in the necessary preliminary before at- following the great Homeric tracting any heed. It is this com- scholar supplements and so corrects plex force of popular demand and his doctrine respecting Homer: attempt to satisfy it that has led “In this splendid work of art we to the absurd and self-contradictory trace the real elements of worship mythologies of polytheism. In and of an ethical system, drawing Egypt the gods, to all but the eyes its strength from obligations to an that could penetrate beneath the unseen Power; to a plurality, which mask, were lost in the multiplicity is also to a great extent an unity, of stony images that once were and which rules the world. Lastly, living symbols. In Greece the while some portions of the scheme art faculty absorbed a nation's point us towards an earlier and spiritual dreamings into beautiful also a ruder state, and others in the visible forms, and tended to cloud direction of a later and corrupt the deep consciousness of the in- civilisation, a third portion reveals visible by bringing everything into a primitive basis of monotheism, the palpable and the external. and ideas in connection with it,

Mr. Gladstone says again: “If which seem to defy explanation, Homer can be exhibited as the

except when we compare them with father of Greek letters in most of the most ancient of the Hebrew their branches, there is one great traditions.” exception, which belongs to a later The consideration which we purdevelopment. That exception was pose giving to the ethical element the philosophy of Greece; which in Homer, and to the philosophy of seems to have owed its first incep- those that came after him, must be tion to the Asiatic contact estab- postponed to a succeeding paper.


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