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Practical Political Economy. By only trade upon what nature gives Professor Bonamy Price. C. Kegan us, and that therefore only those Paul and Co. 1878.

contribute to wealth who, so to WE regard this as the most accu- speak, take the gift from nature's rate and most interesting state- hand—that is, produce raw matement of approved doctrines in rial. The physiocrat thus grudged political economy that is to be had. any tribute to work, for his aim was It is, indeed, strange that econo- to trace all benefits to mother-earth. mics, a science that pretends to There is nothing we know of but great exactitude, should have matter and mind. Now, if matter among its students so many differ- or material exist apart from man ing schools. No economist of note or mind, it cannot be capital ; for has ever fully indorsed the views nothing is capital except in relation of any single predecessor; and to to man's wants. Even were there this statement Professor Price is no miles of corn growing in some exception. He is constantly ques- western prairie, and some settler tioning the results of others, and came upon it, it would not practitakes up towards his fellow- cally be capital until he bestowed labourers the attitude Sir William his labour upon it, either in mowing Hamilton assumed towards philoso- it down, or in some other way exerphers in general. Still, the book

Still, the book cising his power over it. Why, is a sound and valuable addition to then, should there be distinction the literature of its subject, and is between one kind of labour beto be praised for nothing more stowed on it and another ? A than its bold iteration of the Free wheelbarrow is called capital, Trade note. It might be described because it saves labour; but is it as different from other treatises of not to Pascal's genius that humanity its kind in being philosophical. It owes the saving of labour by this upholds a doctrine of common means? A clerk is in a certain sense. The reader who wishes to office paid so much a year for cal. find this out for himself should culating. His employer might turn to Professor Price's first pages conceivably gain his end by using on “ Capital,” where is controverted a calculating machine, but is really the arbitrary distinction between using the clerk's

calculating labour productive and unproduc- machine. tive, according as its result is or is

As we agree with Professor Price not material wealth. We cordially regarding capital, so we approve agree with all put forth in these his criticism of the prevalent theory paragraphs. The root of capital is of rent. “The determination of rent to be found in mind alone. If not, does not belong to the landlord, any theory we fall back on is but to the tenant.' analogous to that of the physiocrats. Altogether, we hope for this book Their argument was, that we can a wide and careful reading.

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The Future Australian Race.

scenery, invented

an exquisite By Marcus Clarke. Melbourne. anthropomorphism, in which he 1877.

deified all his own attributes. The We presume that this is the Egyptian, the Mexican, and the Marcus Clarke who is the author dweller by the Ganges invented a of a very striking novel in three cruel and monstrous creed of volumes, “ His Natural Life.” torture and death. The influence Here he presents us with a paper

of climate was so strong upon the that fairly takes our breath away.

ancient Jews that they were perIn its twenty-two pages we have a petually relapsing from Theism physiognomic history of the British into the congenial cruelties of race from the earliest times, with Moloch and Astarte. Remove comparative sketches from France them into another country, and and Germany; we have likewise a history has no record of a people treatise on the physiological de- save, perhaps, the modern Pagans velopment of nations; and towards of our universities—more devotedly the end there is presented to us attached to the purest form of inan examination of the average telligent adoration of the Almighty. Australian's temples, eyes, nose,

The Christian faith, transported to and teeth, with a prophecy of his the Lybian deserts, or the rocks of future, drawn from this inspection. Spain, became burdened with This is altogether the most horrors, and oppressed with saint startling piece of work we can worship. The ferocious African's remember to have met within the Mumbo Jumbo, the West Indian's unassuming and unpromising

Debbel-debbel, are merely the procovers of a pamphlet. Mr. Clarke ducts of climate and the result of is a man of great culture, and a dietary scale. Cabanis says that apparently holds well in command religious emotion is secreted by the his stores of wide reading. Every smaller intestines. Men think they sentence he writes is striking. are pious when they are only There is much truth in all he says; bilious. Men who habitually eat but he is extravagant, and reduces non-nitrogenous substances, and the study of sociology to the study pay little attention to the state of of digestion. One or two of his their bowels, are always prone to extreme utterances may prove gloomy piety. This is the reason amusing to the reader of these why Scotch men and women are pages. After discussing the broad

usually inclined to religion.” noses and coarse minds of Henry “There is plenty of oxygen in VIII. and his set, Mr. Clarke writes: Australian air, and our Australa“Elizabeth's fine and haughty face sians will have capacious chestscomes like a burst of sunshine also, cæteris paribus, large nostrils. among these gloomy intellects. The climate is unfavourable to the Who is accountable for that development of a strumous diaaquiline nose, and that firm, thesis ; therefore, we cannot expect sweetly moulded chin of Louis de men of genius unless we beget them Hervé's picture ? Anne Boleyn by frequent intermarriage. Genius perhaps alone could tell. Eliza- is to the physiologist but another beth's nose is a revelation in form of scrofula, and to call a man national physiognomy."

a poet is to physiologically insult “It is an absolute fact that the mother who bore him. When religion is, in all cases, a matter of Mr. Edmund Yates termed one of diet and climate. The Greek, with his acquaintances a "scrofulous pure air, light soil, and placid Scotch poet,' he intended to be per


sonal-he was merely tautological. The Human Eye; its Optical ConIt may be accepted as an axiom struction Popularly Explained. By that there has never existed a man Rev. E. Dudgeon, M.D. Hardof genius who was not strumous. wicke and Bogue. 1878. Take the list from Julius Cæsar to In this little book there is exNapoleon, or from Job to Keats, plained all that any but a proand point out one great mind that fessional man need know about the existed in a non-strumous body. eye. It is popular, without ceasing The Australasians will be freed at any page to be accurate and from the highest burden of in- scientific. Nothing of it is new, tellectual development."

except the author's theory of Notwithstanding that the Aus- vision under water, and his in. tralian race is to escape from the genious adaptation of air lenses to evil effects of genius, its future is the sight of divers. These air thus described :

lenses are such that, while they “The conclusion of all this is, bring sub-aqueous objects into therefore, that in another hundred their proper size and position to years the average Australasian will

anyone using them, they do not be a tall, coarse, strong-jawed, hinder ordinary vision above water. greedy, pushing, talented man, Perhaps Dr. Dudgeon exaggerates excelling in swimming and horse- the importance of his discovery ; manship. His religion will be a yet he appears to have made good form of Presbyterianism; his its truth against critics national policy a democracy tem- formerly assailed it. pered by the rate of exchange. His wife will be a thin, narrow woman,

Uniform Local Time Table very fond of dress and idleness, (Terrestrial Time). By Sandford caring little for her children, but Fleming, Engineer-in-Chief, Cawithout sufficient brain


to nadian Pacific Railway. sin with zest. In five hundred This pamphlet deals with an years unless recruited from important and practical problemforeign nations—the breed will be the reduction of terrestrial time to wholly extinct; but in that five one common standard. In Great hundred years it will have changed

it will have changed Britain the differences in terrestrial the face of nature, and swallowed time put us to little inconvenience, up all our contemporary civilisa- save when we pass from or to tion.”

Ireland. The continental traveller It will be seen that, at his worst, experiences greater difficulty in the Mr. Clarke is

very amusing management of his watch. The Taking account of the really clever railway passenger from Halifax to bits of his pamphlet, together with Toronto at the end of his journey his dismal prognostications regard- finds his watch more than an hour ing the future Australia, we should fast. New York differs from San be inclined to hint that this melan- Francisco time by three hours and choly author himself has in him a a half; that of England from that touch of that genius he teaches us of China by eight hours. Mr. to dread; and, at the risk of being Fleming's plan for the reformation personal, we also hint a fear that of chronometry is elaborately his own smile might betray decay, detailed in this treatise, and takes for he assures us that “bad teeth as its unit measure of time the mean bad digestion and bad di- mean solar day. This is divided gestion means melancholy.”

into twenty-four parts, and each of these into minutes and seconds. on an absolute meridian. Still, any. Each of the twenty-four divisions calculation it involves would be is to correspond with certain known small compared to that demanded meridians of longitude; and this in the comparison of time tables arrangement being indexed on an published in different countries. ordinary chronometer, the hour hand shall point to each division as Verney Court: An Irish Novel. it becomes noon at the correspond By M. Nethercott. 2 vols. Loning meridian. The hour band don : Remington. shall revolve from east to west This is a novel that may be dewith the speed of the earth round scribed as only a novel, and for its its axis. It is proposed that these perusal is required a condition of divisions be known by letters of more or less mental ennui. The the alphabet; and as each letter story is somewhat improbable, or, would indicate a true hour, or a we might rather say, is constructed twenty-fourth part of the mean on an old-fashioned model, with an time occupied by the diurnal revo- orthodox villain, a weak tool, a lution of the earth, the standard servant whose conscience is his thus established might be readily master's, a distressed heroine, a adjusted to and compared with any gallant gentleman, an oppressed local time. Thus all railway time family, &c., &c. A characteristic tables might have their figures of the novel which it is possible to reduced to the common ABC praise is its occasional manifestastandard ; and one system would tion of the peculiar quality of suffice for the globe. The theory Irish romantic feelinga sort of is very ingenious, but not quite so mingling of a sense of desolation simple as its author would have us with the flicker of a fiery purpose, believe, for it will work easily only which is not unpoetic in its way.






The destinee, ministre general,
That executeth in the world over al
The purveiance that God hath sen beforne,-
So strong it is, that though the world had sworne
The contrary of a thing by ya or nay,
Yet somtime it shall fallen.
For certainly our appetites here,
Be it of werre, or pees, or hate, or love,
All is this ruled by the eight above.

Chaucer's “Knight's Tale.” La nature donne des passions et des désirs conformes à l'état présent. Ce ne sont que les craintes que nous nous donnons nous-mêmes, et non pas la nature, qui nous troublent. -"Pensées de Pascal,” ix. 19. PESSIMISM is the great fact of valism - a mediævalism of the philosophical development to which schools, not of the church, of barren future historians of our age will logics, not of religion-with neither turn for its explanation. Long the lavish architecture of worship before it became fashionable so to nor the sad Christ to look to, but think, many earnest minds, not only a half-ambitious, half-despairlong passed away, were sadly lis- ing individualism for creed. There tening to the great world symphony, is none but shares this feeling. and finding that, however the melody How with protest, yet with liking, may rise or fall, the sullen unvary- we turn to the gloomy poetical phiing bass carries away the burthen. losophy that is the only original The history of pessimism has yet philosophy of our time, whether it to be written—and by a future be the harsh prophetic strain of generation, for we are in the thick Schopenhauer, or the sublime neof it ourselves. It was only at the gations of Strauss, or the pathos beginning of the present century of “Gravenhurst,” or even the that the wave of the Renaissance flippant criticism of the “New Reat last spent its force. It is draw- public !” To say that Strauss, or ing back: we hear the pebbles Smith, or Mallock (great with rattle in its clutch ; we are perhaps little !) is a pessimist would be far about to ebb into a kind of mediæ- from true, no doubt; but they

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