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animal-soul, is the term

ap- the first to return by resurrection plied to Adam in Genesis.) It to “ the pure world," " the wise has been also derived from Sans- realm,” “the truthful kingdom," crit, kaya, body, form, and mrita, “the best place." earth; and from Syriac words sig- We have referred to the doctrine nifying the Living Word. On the of the entrance of man into the other hand, it might as probably terrestrial sphere by a gradual be Zend gão, bull, and mard, man. corporealisation, and of his return As expressing their earliest mythical to the primary existence by a reverse hero, it is possible that the word process until such food as we know Kaiômart may be archaic in the of is untasted and yet man dies not. language of the Zoroastrians, and We have referred to the apparently that its authentic roots may disarranged or intervolved myth of be difficult to find. In spite of the Hebrew Scripture, and to the the singular similarity between interpretation of it by the Rabbins Kaiômart and Kaiáhmat, as well as in a Kabbalistic sense not unlike between a hero who is the first the doctrine of the Zoroastrians. fruits of terrestrial and then of The Pauline writings, by which resurrection life, and resurrection we conclude our illustrations of the itself regarded as personified; in parable of creation, still further spite, moreover, of the fact that a develop the subject, and convey a common root is found to join the double conception including at once Hebrew and Aryan words signify- both mortal and spiritual life, the ing to rise, we cannot convince latter as the triumphant element. ourselves that there is anything The Adam is taken as representamore in what we have brought for- tive of man in his materialising or ward than one of those singular falling state—that is, as an unappearances of identity such as are spiritual, soulic (psychic), and prewont to lead too enthusiastic eminently terrestrial being; he is philologists astray.

the living animal-soul. The ChristIn the clearness of their avowal idea (the word having apparently a that the truest image and ideal of developed sense from the early man is to be found in his spiritual conception of a Messiah or anointed rather than in his corporeal prin- king) is of man on his upward ciple, the Christian Scriptures tran- journey-man the spiritual, as scend the notion of Kaiômart as the represented by the standard uplifted typical man, represented though he by Jesus, which harmonised with a be as essentially an immortal being. long-reverenced ideal. We may sum his attributes as The notion is of man weighed follows: He is amphibious, by down by corporeal sluggishness reason of being a heavenly creature until awakened by the advent and and yet approaching earth, not the upleading of a messenger from sundered into sex, radiant, white, the bright glad heavenly state, and with eyes looking up to heaven. thus raised from a circle of deHe is the first-born of pure crea- pressed existence, from which with. tures and the closest to the Heavenly out help he was slow to emerge. Understanding, the first recipient A string of familiar passages will of the commands of the Deity, the best convey the sentiment: first who heard His mind, the Son “If there is no upstanding of the of the Spirit of Life, and the first dead, Christ even has not been step from spirit in the direction of awakened. .. .. If it were in the production of the corporeal this life only we had hope in Christ, world, and, as the herald of men,

we are more to be pitied than all


But now Christ has been “ The son of His love ... who raised from the dead, the prime* is an image of the invisible God, of them who have fallen asleep. first-born of all creation ... For since through man is death, so original, first-born from among the through man is upstanding of dead. dead." (Col. i.) For as in the Adam all die, so also “ The man Christ Jesus in the Christ will all be quickened manifested in flesh, justified in (made live creatures). . :.. The spirit, seen by angels, preached last enemy that is to be brought to among gentiles, believed on in the nought is death. .... And when world, received up in glory" ** the all things shall be subjected to “ who brought death to nought, him, then also will the Son himself but brought life and incorruption be made subject unto Him that to light through the good tidings.” subjected the all things unto him, Some “saying that the upstanding that God may be the all in all. . . has already befallen," turn aside. An unspiritual (animal-soulie) body (1 & 2 Tim.) is sown, a spiritual body is up- "Being put to death in the flesh, wakened. If there is an unspiritual but quickened in the spirit, in body, there is also a spiritual. So which also he went and preached also it is written, The first man unto the spirits in prison ... Adam became a living animal soul; good tidings preached to dead men the last Adam a life-giving spirit. also.” (1 Pet.) Howbeit the spiritual is not first, “ The power of his upstanding but the animal-soulic, afterwards if by any means I may reach the spiritual. The first man is of to the upstanding from the dead. earth, earthy; the second man is from Not that I did attain or am already heaven.(1 Cor. xv.)

perfected. . . . I reckon not myself In the following “ye died” seems to have yet laid hold. . . . The to represent the Adam state, and state we belong to is in the the word Christ the quality of heavens.” (Phil. iii.) supernal life, as well as the person “ Ye have a chrism (Christtypifying it: “Ye died, and your quality) from the Holy One. . life has been hidden with Christ in We have passed over out of death God: when Christ, your life, is into life, because we love. . . . Let manifested, then will ye also be us love, because He first loved us." manifested with him in glory.” . . . (1 John iv.) Deaden earth-qualities and evils, These passages are mixed with “ seeing that ye have stript off the much mystical matter of various old man with his deeds, and have kinds and value, generated as they put on the new man, which is being were when there was a spiritual renewed unto full knowledge after stir beyond what is wonted, and the image of Him that created him; onsequently a consciousness apt where there is no such thing as to over-stimulate ; but the quotaGreek and Jew, circumcision and tions are clear enough to show a uncircumcision, non-Greek, Scy- complete theory of an amphibious thian, bond, free; but Christ is all constitution of man, represented and in all.” (Col. iii.)

by "an old man,” a typical or

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* Arapan has a double sense as first both in time and quality; it is commonly used metaphorically, as in “the very prime of wisdom,” “ of philosophy.” In Plato (Prot. 343, XXVIII.) certain maxims are recorded as being inscribed on the temple at Delphi, and dedicated to Apollo as “ the first fruits of wisdom.”

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primal representative of bodily Again, "a conception which perlife, and a new man,” the type, vades the Midrash literature is that herald, and kindler of the there is an upper' and a lower' supernal life. They show, too, Adam : a celestial man, made creation and resurrection as form- strictly in the image of God, and ing a cycle, and even evince a a terrestrial man corresponding tendency to shift the simple cycle in detail to his archetype, of which from each individual to whom it he is the material adumbration. belongs to a composite cyclical This two-fold conception makes it idea. The conception which they difficult at times to estimate the contain of a double Adam or precise value of the brief enigof man in polar opposite attitudes, matical sayings of the Rabbis on we shall illustrate from Talmudic the Creation and the Fall. The lore.

matter is further complicated by The orthodox Rabbinical views, their tendency to ignore the disas given in the Talmud, being tinction between the potential and fairly attributable in part to the the actual ; between the embryo new lights let in upon the Hebrews and its development; between the through their intercourse with the idea' and its temporal manifestaMedian sages, will complete for us tion. the not inharmonious chain of the “There are two aspects of the myths of the ancestry of man, both statement that man was made in Aryan and Semitic.

the çelem, or image, of God, Mr. Taylor, the editor of the according as we regard the resemexcellent edition of the Pirqe blance to God as predicated of the Aboth, refers to the double idea of actual man or of his archetype ; Adam or man, constituting "the and, as

a consequence of this, doctrine that there is a correspon

there are also two ways of regard. dence in all respects between the ing the Fall, viz. (1), as a loss of upper world and the lower: 'What- the Divine image in which man ever exists above, exists also below.' was actually created, and (2) as a Thus there is an archetypal and falling away of the terrestrial celestial Adam analogous to the Adam from his archetype. In the lower Adam, and made literally in Book of the Generations of the image of God. There is also a Adam, the Divine likeness is familia above corresponding to the described as not wholly lost but human familia below, with respect perpetuated : 'God created man to which it is said: May it be in the Thy pleasure, O Lord our God, to Adam begat a son in his own make peace in the family above LIKENESS, after his image' (Gen. and in the family below: (Bera- v. 1, 3); on which Ramban rekoth, 16b, 17a.) The condition or marks: 'It is known that all that action of either of these com- are born of living beings are in munities must have its analogue the likeness and image of their in the other. "He who occupies parents ; but because Adam was himself in Thorah for its own exalted in his likeness and his sake makes peace in the family image, for it is said of him that above and in the family below. 'In the likeness of God made He Rab said, It is as if he built a him, it says expressly here that palace above and below. ... More- his offspring likewise were in that over he protects the whole world, exalted likeness, but it does not &c., and brings the redemption say this of Cain and Abel, not nigh.' (Sanhedr. 99b.)”

wishing to dilate upon them, &c.'


of God ...


This agrees with the Targum of fall which should inspire no hyperJonathan, which introduces the ascetic horror; and it returns with remark that before this Eve bare a fresh armful, so to speak, of life Cain, who not like him and experience, to a state nigher (Adam),' &c." This idea of an than before to the Divine likeness earthward development will remind of its origin. To infringe the us of the Zoroastrian beliefs, and laws of the lower Adam is to be especially of the conception of a starveling in life, and miss the Kaiômart as the being responsive way that leads up to the true to the mind of the Divinity, while upstanding. “ The first Adami Maschia and Maschiana typify extended from the earth to the human beings who are not on the firmament, for it is said that he was prophetic heights of humanity, but created upon or above the earth" are of its animal plane; and we (Chagiga 12a) : “ Twice didst may be reminded of the beautiful thou form me (writes the comcounterblast to unhealthy asceti- mentator, as cited by Mr. Taylor) cism which we have quoted, that at first high, then low.” But the man the spiritual must, as things regeneration is the old spiritual are, succeed rather than precede generation more fully realised. man the unspiritual. Man the “The sonship of Israel," says spiritual, we may say, is built up Mr. Taylor, “implies their possesor strengthened from man the sion of the Divine likeness in a corporeal ; large and healthy root higher degree than Adam, or (postulating due openness to the man in general ..

The Divine sunlight) makes large and primal man, the embryo of wholesome flower.

the race, is created an adumbration The superficially opposite views of Elohim ; Israel is singled out for which we have instanced can all be the distinction of sonship to reconciled in the paradox that the IHVH.” We who are of Aryan Fall of man is his Rise; the earth- origin may not claim to any special ward pilgrimage well pursued is distinction over Gentile humanity, the way of heavenly strength. but prefer to rank according as we

Creation, according to the Tal- are found. The less intensely mud, is not to be regarded as com

Judaic of the Rabbis, moreover, plete in Adam, or, as we should would appear to have preferred say, in the protoplastic state : the general to the special ground.

Everything that was created in “R. Obadiah of Sforno dilates, the six days of Bereschith needs upon man's faculty of acquiring ' making (i.e., preparation a perfection with which he was concoction). The mustard,

mustard, for not specifically created. He reexample, needs sweetening; lupines marks that 'In imagine need sweetening; wheat needs to implies the twofold possibility, be ground; even man needs amend- first, of rising to perfection by ment:" (Bereschith Rabbah XI.) means of wisdom through which

According to this view,” says Mr. the love and fear of God are Taylor," the image and like- acquired, and, secondly, of lapsing ness' is that to which man approxi- into chaos and perishing, according mates.” So we logically come to to the words of the Psalmist this as the outcome of the old (xlix. 21), “If he will not underphilosophic myths when brought stand, he will be like the beasts together. Resurrection and crea- that perish.

[Man that is in tion are complemental; the spirit honour (his heavenly birthright leaves its primary state, but by a and spiritual state) and under


standeth not, is like the beasts a feast, will at least help to show that perish']; for if man had that a true reconciliation of the been wholly spiritual he might world's faiths is possible; and have been called actually Elohim, a afford evidence that, as we speak word which is applied not only to

now words of the Aryan language, God but to intellectual and incor- and, owing to the Aryans someporeal beings, as angels, and also to thing of physical heredity, are judges, in respect of the mind ... historically their relations as well which properly belongs to them; as linked with them in the common but since he is in part material he brotherhood of humanity, so also is described, not as Elohim, but in we may be at least cousins with lower terms, as in the image of them in religious ideas. There is, Elohim.'"

verily, no Divine enforcement, These Hebrew subtleties may nor even have we aught of prove tedious, but we must not spontaneous intuition, that in forget that the sages had to work religion any the more than in out their thoughts in a narrow and science or art, there should be the constraining epoch. We who have least withdrawal from Catholicity. the privilege of expanding our Stages of development and diffelungs in a freer air may treat rences of character may surely be Aryan and Semite as brothers, and fraternally allowed for in the relimake harmonious philosophy of our gious endeavours of humanity, own from the best we can find of without too severe a strain being philosophic suggestiveness, whether put upon the charity that thinks of lore or of life.

no evil and is not puffed up, but The gathered fragments of this rejoices with the truth. paper, if scarcely enough to afford


Fled calm idyllic, gone days free from trouble ! -
The big slave Steam is bought, yet man slaves double.

Success's handicap draws all : who knows

Simplicity's contemplative repose ?-
Fever of vying is our choice instead.

Place for the strong! the gentle may knock under ;

The fretful modern man, athletic wonder,
Somehow gets on, and so gets off his head.

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