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from the more southern side, from days, or nights, that the soul rethe more southern quarters, a sweet mains near the body after death. scent more sweet-scented than The Sanscrit equivalent is trirátrin. other winds. Then inhaling that In the book of the Mainyo-i-Khard wind with the nose, the soul of the (Spirit of Wisdom) it is written: pious

considers, Whence * He who is a world-adorning blows the wind, the most sweet- and spirit-destroying man is so scented wind that I have ever in- destroyed, in a single punishment haled with the nostrils ? Advancing of the three days, as a raging fire with this wind, there appears to when water comes upon it." (ib. him what is his own religion (or XXI., 10.) law, the rule of life to which he “ Which is the good work ...? has conformed] in the figure of a To wish good for everyone beautiful maiden

and to be undoubting about the dazzling face. Then the soul existence of God, and the religion, of the pious man speaks to her, and the soul, and heaven, and the asking, What virgin art thou, account that is in the three days, whom I have seen here as the most and the reality of the resurrection beautiful of virgins in form? Then of the dead and the final body." answers him his own law, I am, (ib. LXIII., 1-7.) O youth, thy good thoughts, good “ Be not reliant on since words, good deeds, and good reli- death occurs at last, and dogs and gion, on account of which good birds destroy the corpse, and the religion in thy own possession bones fall to the ground; and everyone has loved thee for such during three days (and) nights, greatness, and goodness, and the soul sits on the top of the head beauty, and perfume, and victo- of the body." (ib. 11., 110–114.) riousness, which overcomes enemies, In the former part of this paper as thou appearest to me... The reference was made to the traces soul of the pious man first ad- of relationship and similarity vanced with a footstep placed upon existing between the Aryan docgood thought; secondly, upon good trines and those which belong to word; thirdly, upon good action; what Christendom has accepted as fourthly, upon the eternal lights. its own religious traditions. To him spoke a pious one, pre- The Aryan approaches the viously deceased, asking, How, question of the birth-process of O pious one, didst thou die? how death in a detailed and picturesque, come away from the fleshly dwell- we had almost said matter-of-fact, ings, ... from the corporeal world, way. The following passage will to the spiritual life, from the exemplify the deeper intensity of perishable to the imperishable ? religious feeling in the Hebrew. how long will have been thy bless- “Come and let us return unto ing? Then said Ahura Mazda, the Lord; for He hath torn, and He Ask not him whom thou askest, will heal us; He hath smitten, and who is come along the fearful, he will bind us up.

After two terrible, tremendous path, the days will He revive us; in the separation of body and soul.” third day he will raise us up, and (Hadokht Nask 11.; cf. Arda Viraf we shall live in His sight. Then IV., 8-35; Mainyo-i-Khard II., shall we know, if we follow on to 110–157.)

know the Lord ; His going forth is In the Pazand, sadis or sēdish is prepared as the morning, and He the term for this period of three shall come unto us as the rain, as

on

the latter and former rain unto the words compounded of the Greek earth."

verb signifying to stand, apostasy This singular fragment appears and ecstasy, and may transliterate in the book of Hosea (vi. I, 3) others, from the compound verb quite detached from any context. above cited, viz., anastasy and If we analyse the passage it will exanastasy. A common measure is be difficult to see what it means if manifest in these words. Apostasy it does not belong to the same is offstanding in the sense of defeckind of prophetic or visionary tion ; ecstasy is outstanding in the depiction of after-death experience sense in which (in the Persian as we have cited from the Zoro- passage already quoted) the spirit astrian books.

is described as finding its body By the loose manner of Hebrew a loose garment, which, under speech the phrase "after two days” certain conditions, it is possible is apparently reckoned as equi- to stand out of. Anastasy is upvalent to “after three days” and standing used in many senses, and also to “on the third day," as may is the well-known word which is be seen from what is quoted above usually and inaccurately transwhen compared with Esther iv. 16, lated resurrection. The invariable and v. 1, and also with the follow- German rendering of the word is ing:

auferstehung, to which our Anglo“Come again unto me after three Saxon "upstanding" is the exact days. They came on the third equivalent. The word ex-ana-stasy day, as the king bade, saying, 'come or out-up-standing combines the again the third day.'

(2 notion of ecstasy, or the spirit's Chron. x. 5 and 12.)

freedom, with that of anastasy or The confusion is caused by frac- its elevation. Whoever originally tions of days being counted as applied this Greek term to the wholes. From a few moments subject of what is denominated before a particular day begins resurrection, had evidently the to a moment after it is passed, clearest understanding of the the period is one of three days, metaphysics of the expression. for it breaks into three separate

The word resurrection is condays.

fusing, for it implies re-rising, or We will refer presently to the rising again, which is a thought Hebrew word used in Hosea to quite compatible with the Parsi denote resurrection, and dwell for conception of a primal state of a moment here on its Greek equi- existence to which the spirit returns valent in the Septuagint. The at death ; but that is not what is Greek verb is εξανίστημι, literally intended by those who currently forth-up-stand, using the English

use the word.

If it is designed to verb both transitively and intran- mean a re-establishment of the sitively; and the construction physical organism, that sense is not differs slightly from that of the to be found in the Greek term as Hebrew original, being in place of originally employed. “ in the third day he will make us The Aryan influences acting upon upstand," " in the third day we shall the Hebrews evidently tended to forth-upstand,” or, to paraphrase relax in some degree the reverential the compound,“emerge on a higher intensity with which the Hebrew plane erect." By a comparison of mind had been wont to regard the words the English reader may find mysteries of life.

mysteries of life. The following the pith of the meaning of this passage from the Talmud repreone. We have two well-known sents the mood of the Jewish

no

Rabbis of Pumbadita," and shows are changed." (Tanchuma, f. 47, us how they regarded the process 1;" compare also Job xiv. 22). of death as any other of nature's “They make attestation processes might have been regarded. respecting a dead person except There is no lack of reverence, but within three days after his death. less of the strained hush of awe After the three days' time they do than accompanies the utterances of not attest concerning him, inastheir older prophets :

much as the aspect of his face is “Rabba, assisting at the agony altered.(Jebamoth f, 120, 1.) of Rab Nachman, said to him, In the Johannine story of Master, I would that thou would'st Lazarus (John xi. 17, 39) the appear to me after thy death. Rab fourth day is adduced as affording Nachman appeared unto him. conclusive evidence of death. Rabba asked of him, Hast thou The myth of Jonah, probably suffered much ?-As a hair that disfigured as it is from its original, one should draw out of a cup of may occur to us as having been milk." (Moed Katan, 28a.)

cited in relation to this doctrine of It is naturally to be expected the triple period occupied by the that ancient Rabbinical literature death process. The interior of the will show definite traces of the whale as a residence affords a Mazdayasnian lore relative to the somewhat powerful metaphor for threefold period of death's gesta- three days of death, for there would tion of the soul. The following indeed be there neither good seamay serve as instances :

faring nor good dry land, but a • Tradition of the son (disciple) veritable suspension of realisable of Caphra :—The utmost force of existence. woe continues not, save unto the According to such studious third day; for, during a three- Rabbis among the modern Jews days' space, the soul wanders

as are conversant with Bible, Tal. around its sepulchre, expecting to mud, and Gospels alike, and hold return into the body. When it out yearning and sadly unregarded sees that the aspect of the counte- hands towards their Christian nance is become fixed, it recedes fellows, the expression “ the son of and relinquishes the body.” man denotes man in general, but (Bereschith R. c. 7.)

as viewed in his immortal aspect; “For the entire space of three and so comes to signify a man days the soul flies above the body, docile to the inspiration of the soul, expecting to return.” (Vajikra Ř. and superior to the suggestions of XVIII.)

matter. “For three days there is vehe- In this general sense, or rather mence of woe, because up to this in a particular sense typifying the point the form of the face is recog- general sense, would by them be nised." (Koheleth R. XII. 5.) understood such expressions as

“ Why, after a three-days' space, these : “As Jonah was three days can the poor creature lay aside and three nights in the whale's woe?

After a three-days' space belly; so will the son of man the flesh corrupts, and its looks be three days and three nights

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* Pum-Bedaitha, mouth of the Bedaitha, a canal sometime joining the Euphrates and the Tigris, and perhaps one day to be reopened. In referring to the destiny of the Euphrates valley, in the former part of this paper, we were not anticipating the announcement of the British Government that so soon followed its publication.

in the heart of the earth.” [literally, upstand himself]. The (Matt. xiii. 40.)

sister replies, “I know that he will “Destroy this temple and in in the upstanding (anastasis, auferthree days I will raise it up stehung) in the uttermost day.” The [literally awaken it]

final day to the sages meant proHe spoke of the temple of his bably the mortal life's final daybody.” (John ii. 19, 2î, cf. Matt. the uttermost hour of each indixxvi. 61).

vidual on earth; but in the popu“ The Son of Man is about to be lar view this idea would seem delivered

up

into the hands of men, to have brought a spiritual fact and they will kill him, and the into too near and familiar relathird day he will be raised (literally, tions for it to be welcomed. A awakened].” (Matt. xvii. 22.) lesson we may safely draw from the

“ We remember that that life of Jesus is that while standing deceiver said, while he was yet on this plane he also stood, and alive, after three days I am raised stood consciously and with open (literally, am awakened].” (Matt. eyes, on the grander interior plane Xxvii. 63.)

of spirit. He responds in splendid “He used to teach his disciples and majestic utterance : I am, and say to them, The Son of Man embodied here before you, the upis delivered up into the hands of standing and the life [an idiomatic man, and they will kill him, and expression, presumably meaning though killed, after three days he by its conjunction of substantives, will raise himself up [literally, up- the same as I am, or represent, the stand himself. Here we find the anastatic or upstanding life). He word used for resurrection which that confides in me [and realises was examined above in its form this fact of the higher life], though anastasy). But they understood he die (which is a temporal fact, not the saying, and were afraid to only), yet will he live, and everyone ask him.” (Mark ix. 31.)

that lives and confides in me will These mystical passages we never die.” In other words, everyleave as we find them; if there be one who attains to the realisation a triplicity in the process of death of the spiritual fact as it is, will as the mature soul traverses and know that death is nothing and solidifies the essence of its ex- life is everything. The day he dies perience of childhood, youth, and he will begin to awaken in the full age, it would be as true to the fitting paradise of his state. Aryan as to the Jew; and any We have brought forward this obscurity with regard to it would familiar account not only because arise only in the mode of appre- it sheds light through the haze hension of so recondite a nativity. that lies upon the Aryan, and The haze to which we have also

upon

the Jewish and Christian pointed as floating for so long a doctrines, but because of a sometime over the subject of an epochal, what fanciful relation which it congeneral, and remote resurrection, as tains to our Aryan ancestor. distinguished from the continuance

Kaiômart, as we have found him of the soul's existence in immediate in the Zoroastrian books, is revigorous life, may be found in the garded as “the first fruits of them story of Lazarus, which is no doubt that slept ”—Kaiômart shall rise an expansion of some incidents in first [auferstehen, or upstand, as the life of Jesus. Referring to the the Germans render the original brother who is apparently departed, text], afterwards the rest of manthe Master says, He will rise again kind.

The reported words of Jesus, "I rising to one's feet from a chair, as am the resurrection” (upstanding), well as upstanding in the sense of we have only in the Greek language. reaching the life after death. If we had the veritable Aramaic in The Hebrew word employed in which he is presumed to have

the same sense in the passage spoken, the expression would have we have quoted from Hosea is been something like

choomun, containing the same root Anna hou Kaiáhmat.

Km with Kaiáhmat. This root If one of the mages, then, who Km, Küm, means also to estabare related to have discovered by lish, to set upright, to rise, to raise. astromancy the cradle of his birth, In Mark v. 41, we find a record of had been among the auditors of the power of Jesus in restoring a Jesus, it would have sounded to his poor girl who was nearly dead. ears very much as if the mysterious He says, according to the English Rabbi of Galilee were identifying translation, “Maiden, arise," and himself with the Aryan represen

by a very rare chance the Aramaic tative of the life that upstands and words of this encouraging address vanquishes death. He might have are given us, transliterated into thought that he heard a voice, I Greek : Talitha kum [or Kovm]. am Kaiômart.

This is the identical root of This seems to be a curious fancy, Kaiáhmat. * and nothing more, though it is not Kaiômart is a word variously absolutely certain that the Aryan spelled by foreign writers, and word Kaiômart and the Semitic very variously derived.

We find word Kaiáhmat have root Kaiomorts, Kehomorts, Kajumert, affinity.

Kayomers, Kaiomurs, Kajomorts, We will give, by the way, an in- Kayūmart, Gayômard, Gayomars, teresting piece of evidence that the Gaiomard, Gayomart, Gayô-mareta, word Jesus did use for resurrection Gayômaratan, Gaya-maretan, Gayowas virtually Kaiáhmat. The word marathno, Gaiumardda, Gueiéhéto rise, which forms its root, is used mereté, Giomert, &c. It has been in many senses, as indeed is the said to

no

mean mortal life, beGreek word anastasis, which sig- cause Khai in Hebrew signifies nifies insurrection, and even the living. (Nephesh khayá, a living

* The word shows but slight variation through a number of dialects. In Syriac it is nou-chachma or nu-choma ; Hebraic, kouhma; Peshito and old Chaldee, chiamta, chaiman ; Chaldee and Arabic, kaimna and kaem, to raise; kaiâmat, one who raises up the people. Arabic kiyàm, standing upright, rising up, making an insurrection ; kimat, plural kiyam, stature (kayyām, subsisting, eternal; kayyimat, straightness, orthodoxy); kiyāmat, the resurrection, last day, last judgment. There is a modern Persian work entitled Kiamat Nama,” or Resurrection-Compendium. The word in late Persian or Arabic will bear a trace of its popular Jewish signification, through Mohammedan influences.

The root kum may be seen in our own language in ac-cum-ulate, where it signifies rising, swelling, and so, mound or heap. It comes to us through Greek xúrTW, xúyßos, xūna; Latin, cumulus, tumeo, tumulus (tomb), cyma ; French, comble, cime. A swelling with the idea of ripeness (found in the uses of tumeo) associates it with zvíw, xúnua. The sanscrit is cvayāmi; Pazand, kôma, lust; keym, womb, old Bactrian cagemâ ; Pali kāmo, wish, desire, lust; Tibetan, kampa, to long for.

The Hebrew or Chaldee root is thus traceable into the Aryan tongues : The Pahlvi kîmunistan, to wish, to desire, to ask (Sanscrit kâma, a desire), has its substantive kâmeh, for which the corresponding Pazand word is khâstan, which also means to rise, get up; so that it is considered by philologists that the verb is in affinity with the Chaldee kum, kim, koum, kaem.

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