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“The Expression of the Emotions,” and “ Climbing Plants,” or his numerous scientific memoirs; but we append a list of them, taken from Nature of June 4, 1874.

It is hardly necessary to say that Mr. Darwin has received many scientific honours. He is an honorary member of various foreign scientific societies; he has received the Wollaston Medal from the Geological Society; and from the Royal Society, in 1853, one of the Royal Medals; and, in 1864, the Copley Medal. No man living has exercised so great an influence on biological science. In German scientific catalogues “Der Darwinismus” is a recognised heading; and indeed, there is scarcely one of Mr. Darwin's works which may not be said not only to have been a valuable contribution to our knowledge, but to have pointed out relations hitherto unsuspected, and to have opened up new lines of thought. A list of Mr. Darwin's works ma be found useful for the student, and is appended below. We are glad to be able to add that more than one of Mr. Darwin's sons has already made valuable contributions to science.

Although Mr. Darwin has done so great an amount of scientific work of the very highest class, he has for many years past been in very delicate health. This has prevented him from taking any active part in the management of our scientific bodies, and from mixing much in general society. No man, however, is more beloved by those who have the privilege of his friendship.

General Works. “Journal of Researches into the Natural History and Geology of the Countries visited by H.M.S. Beagle.” 1845.

“On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection." 1859.

This was preceded by a sketch, entitled, “On the Variation of Organic Beings in a State of Nature.” Published in the Journal of the Linnean Society, vol. 3 (Zool.) 1859, “On the Agency of Bees in the Fertilisation of Papilionaceous Flowers." Ann. Nat. Hist., vol. ii., 1858, p. 459.

p. 46.

“The Variation of Plants and Animals under Domestication.” 2 vols. 1868.
The Descent of Man and Selection in Relation to Sex." 2 vols. 1871.
“The Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals.” 1872.

Zoological Works. The Zoology of the Voyage of H.M.S. Beagle.” Edited and superintended by C. Darwin. 1840. Consisting of five parts.

A Monograph of the Cirripedia : Part I., Lepadidæ.” Ray Soc. 1851, pp. 400. A Monograph of the Cirripedia : Part II., the Balanidæ.” Ray Soc., 1854, pp. 684. “A Monograph of the Fossil Lepadidæ.” Pal. Soc. 1851, pp. 86. “A Monograph of the Fossil Balanidæ and Verrucidæ.” Pal. Soc. 1854, pp. 44.

Observations on the Structure of the genus Sagitta.” Ann. Nat. Hist., vol. xiii., 1844.

“Brief Description of Several Terrestrial Phanariæ and of some Marine Species." Ann. Nat. Hist., vol. xiv., 1844, p. 241.

Botanical Works. “On the Various Contrivances by which British and Foreign Orchids are Fertilised." 1862. Second edition, 1877.

“The Movements and Habits of Climbing Plants.” 1875. (Bot.), p. 1.--This paper has also been published as a separate work.

“On the Action of Sea Water on the Germination of Seeds." Jour. Linn. Soc., vol., i., 1857 (Bot.), p. 130.

“Insectivorous Plants.” 1875.

" The Effects of Cross and Self Fertilisation in the Vegetable Kingdom.” Second edition. 1878. “The Different Forms of Flowers on Plants of the same Species.” 1877.

Geological Works. “The Structure and Distribution of Coral Reefs.” 1842, pp. 214.

Geological Observations on Volcanic Islands.” 1844, pp. 175. “Geological Observations on South America." 1846, pp. 279.

“On the Connection of the Volcanic Phenomena in South America, &c.” Trans. Geol. Soc., vol. v.; read March, 1838.

“On the Distribution of the Erratic Boulders in South America." Journ. Geol. Soc. Fol. vi. ; read April, 1841.

“ On the Transportal of Erratic Boulders from a lower to a higher level.” Journ. Geol. Soc., 1848, p. 315.

"Notes on the Ancient Glaciers of Carnarvonshire.” Phil. Mag., vol. xxi. 1842,

p. 180

“On the Geology of the Falkland Islands." Journ. Geol. Soc., 1846, pp. 267.

“On a Remarkable Bar of Sandstone off Pernambuco.” Phil. Mag., Oct. 1841, pp. 257.

“On the Formation of Mould.” Trans. Geol. Soc., vol. v., p. 505; read Nov. 1837. "On the Parallel Roads of Glen Roy." Trans. Phil. Soc., 1839, p. 39.

“On the Power of Icebergs to make Grooves on a Submarine Surface.” Phil. Mag., Aug. 1855.

An Account of the Fine Dust which often Falls on Vessels in the Atlantic Ocean." Proc. Geol. Soc., 1845, p. 26.

“ Origin of the Saliferous Deposits of Patagonia.” Journ. Geol. Soc., vol. i., 1838,

p. 127.

Part “Geology," in the Admiralty Manual of Scientific Inquiry, 1819; third edition, 1859.

HISTORICAL CREDIBILITY.

By an Ex-SCHOLAR of Oxford. Two familiar cautions will best could have been investigated at introduce this very practical and the time, as some of them were important subject :

investigated, in courts of law. The “There is a great deal of human lapse of years cannot render the nature in man;"

conditions of certainty or pro“Fools rush in where angels fear bability any less stringent. We to tread.”

cannot acquit or condemn Mary For angels let us read logicians, now on evidence that made “not and for fools substitute that class proven" the only just verdict three of persons who of all others in

centuries ago. The same narrative dulge most, and succeed least, in is not any more credible in itself as ratiocination-persons who dip into History of the Crimean Camhistory for the first and only time paign " than as “Letters to the with a determination that it shall Times from the Seat of War.” supply some final solution, or, worse A professed historian is a person still, that it shall confirm their own whose capacities and motives for preconceived solution of some ex- telling the truth we have not yet citing problem or controversy, be discussed. We may provisionally it the truth of their religion or the assume that all men tell the truth character of Mary Queen of Scots. if they can, if they take the trouble,

And why is such an enterprise and if they have no interest the almost certain to fail, and worthy other way. As the basis of the therefore to be denounced as labours of the historian, we have foolish ? Because no one could to deal with certain kinds of "real" imagine beforehand, no one with evidence, as coins and inscriptions; out wide and unprejudiced research and long unquestioned notoriety could believe, the weakness and claims a considerable weight with foolishness of us mortals in fur- practical men. We ask no other nishing and in using the materials proof that Mahomet fled from of history.

Mecca to Medina A.D. 622; and let Yet we must needs expect some- it not be thought that there is here thing of the kind, far as our expec- any contradiction of the protest tations are surpassed by the reality. just launched against conniving at Historical evidence, in matters of weaker evidence on account of detail, is merely legal evidence of a remoteness of date. We refer here very weak sort.

Was Mary an to broad, general facts, and not to accomplice in the murder of Darn- details, such the question ley? Did the Persian Xerxes cut whether the Prophet was saved a canal through the isthmus of from his pursuers by the spider's Mount Athos ? These and very web and the pigeon's nest in his many other historical problems cave.

as

canons.

Moreover, the great principle to (by the rules of the Syllogism), and be borne in mind while we proceed thus arrive again at all the partito distinguish historical problems culars from which we started, and from law suits and criminals trials under similar conditions (if any) at is this : Usually these problems are similar particulars; while under no merely speculative. It makes no conditions must we thus infallibly difference to our peace of mind or reach any wrong conclusion. Our our manner of life whether there hypothesis must be adequate, must were seven kings of Rome or none (if possible) predict, and must on at all. It is for this reason that no account prove too much. And, we are prone so readily to adopt further, no rival hypothesis must either the traditional account of do equally well. the matter in hand, however slender We must expect, then, to find its supports, or else the hypothesis great difficulty in establishing suggested by the best and latest Canons of Historical Credibility, authorities, however slight the more lax than those of Law Courts, preponderance of evidence in its yet so axiomatic that we may, defavour. But, assail the truth of nounce as unreasonable and illogiour religion or the honour of our cal anyone who refuses to credit a country, and our attitude is wholly historical event which satisfies those different. We insist on maintain. ing any theory we like, unless it is They must rest, of course, upon upset by more than the full amount experience. They will not be selfof proof which the ideal court of evident. A denial of them can law would require in a case that never involve a contradiction in rested merely on hearsay. We are terms, a refusal to think on the as assured as if we possessed subject, like a denial of the canons documentary and “real” evidence, of causation. At best our ground and held a dispensation to ignore for asserting that they never will the priceless privilege of oral cross- fail will be the fact that they never examination.

have failed, and even this involves And here the student may once a kind of argumentum ad hominem more be reminded that there are i.e., if you do not feel obliged to two tests of truth of fact which believe this narrative, you cannot supersede all others : verification, feel obliged to believe any similar i.e., the verdict, when it is attain. narrative, for the evidence is as able, of our own (undeluded) bodily complete as (in such a case) hissenses— seeing is believing; and torical evidence can be. consistency, wanting which, we are What, then, does experience tell at least certain that one of the two us as to the separate and combined conflicting accounts is, in this item, value of the various sources of hisfalse.

torical information-i.e., notoriety, Nor should he for a moment books of history (including bioforget that, while inconsistency is graphies, autobiographies, and hisconclusive as to the presence of torical allusions in letters, treatises, error, consistency is only a condi- and other compositions), monution, not a guarantee, of truth. ments (including coins, inscripAn inference deduced from admitted tions, and ceremonies), institutions, premises is irresistible only when language, and undisputed subsethe assumption of its contradictory quent events ? leads to a reductio ad absurdum. It tells us this : Every one of No induction is correct unless we them that involves any conscious can retrace our steps deductively effort to be historical may lead us

into the grossest error.

The last to be played with except by exthree give unconscious, and there- perts,” we will exhibit some further fore unerring, testimony; but they difficulties to be found in arriving say little, and that liitle hard to at historical truth. interpret aright. Taken all to- There is of course a broad line of gether, they are outweighed by a demarcation in this respect, nay, single grain of verifiable fact" or an immeasurable gap, between the demonstrable truth. The mention long ages before the birth of hisof an eclipse in ancient history torical criticism and the two cenenables modern astronomers to fix turies that have since elapsed. No a date infallibly, though in the so-called history is now received as teeth, it may be, of all received such unless it satisfies all that we chronology. "Mons. Thiers him- have learnt to demand in the way self and a host of French historians of care and research ; while unimay repeat the anecdote of Le Ven- versal education, and all our modern geur refusing to strike her flag in means for the publication, transthe action of June 1, 1794, and mission, and correction of news are going down into the depths of the sufficient guarantees that no broad ocean, while her crew shouted · Vive or general historical facts of these la Republique. But Admiral and future times will ever be inGriffiths saw Le Vengeur taken volved in the mists of doubt. possession of by the boats of the As to details, on the other hand, Culloden;

saw the Frenchmen errare est humanum must always trying to save themselves; heard hold good. Lord Russell was untheir outcries, which were merely able to keep his “Recollections” those of horror and despair."* free from such a gross blunder as

Nor would any impartial person transposing the chief diplomatic hesitate to treat great intrinsic im- events of two consecutive years, probability and inconsistency with and thus “inverting the true relaall analogies drawn from what is tions of the persons most converifiable, as counteracting even cerned." All Mr. Kinglake's laboseemingly flawless testimony. For riousness could not produce a really instance (though neither the narra- accurate account of the battle of tive nor the objection is unexcep

Inkermann. tionable), belief in the Seven Kings But enough has been said about of Rome (B.C. 754-510) till A.D. details already. The following are 1624 was as universal as belief in some instances of signal failure in the Twelve Cæsars (B.C. 50 to A.D. the various kinds of historical evi. 100); but is almost overthrown by dence with regard to general facts. the one circumstance that an aver- It is admitted that all Roman age duration of thirty-five years to History before the war with a reign in such times is unheard of Pyrrhus (i.e., for the first 472 and perhaps morally impossible. years from the era of the founda

As the chief object of this paper tion of the city) must always be is to impress upon the student of mere guesswork. And the records logic that in this field of contro- of every ancient nation include versy, as in all others, “because a period of mythology and vague and therefore are edged tools not tradition, a period so obscure that,

* We are indebted for many suggestions in this article to a paper on “The Rules of Evidence as Applicable to the Credibility of History," read before the Victoria Institute, March 2, 1874, by William Forsyth, Q.C., LL.D., M.P.

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