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ascertained exactly what takes our Moffat has not exhausted the fancy. Whenever they had a taste- subject. He criticises, and scarcely ful novelty to show, we were eager can win our attention; he theorises, to buy it. If I lounged into the but does not gain our assent to his shop, my looks may have said theories; he ends his book without quite plainly, “Show me anything having begun to convince. He very smart and good, and I will insists on the claims of Consumpbuy it.” If they had nothing par- tion to study ; that is what is ticular to show, they would say, valuable in his work. The ques“ The season is not yet begun; our tion to those attempting this buyer is just leaving for Paris.” study is, Must consumption be And the buyer buys to suit our regarded as the great cause of taste. Now the buyer, it is already economics, or as a branch of the agreed, in buying the novelty, subject? Mr. Moffat inclines to bought labour. When we buy the the latter view. He would not same article, we buy over from consult consumption, but command him what he obtained from the it. He disbelieves, to a certain Parisian, and pay an additional extent, in free production, and also price for his labour in placing this in free consumption. Consumption within our reach. The shopkeepers is to be watched, guided, educated. would not exist without us; the By whom? Not by the consumers buyers could not exist without themselves, but by the producers ! employers; the Parisian, without It will be seen that Mr. Moffat's the buyers, would be without a views have the merit of novelty. market. But my desire for a In the critical part of this book, novelty was the cause of the shop- there are several strictures on keeper's desire; the shopkeeper's Adam Smith's way of putting was the cause of the buyer's; the propositions which are just; here buyer's was the cause of the manu- and there the systems of other facturer's. Of all these, I alone economists are shown to have wanted the article.

actual, though unimportant, flaws; This way of looking at economical but most of the writing is devoid problems from the side of demand,

of any point save that of abuse. is certainly as safe as to look at Were Mr. Moffat surer of his case, them from the side of supply. he would be more sparing of hard Demand is surer of meeting, pro- words for the great names he duction than production is of summons up. One or two specimeeting demand. Berkeley would mens may show the peculiarity of have no world but what we see; this author's views : there is practically no world for “ The work of Malthus man but what he desires. Beauty, ‘Population' is a contribution to value, interest, are all relative

economy intrinsically more valu. terms. We apply them to nature; able, in my opinion, even

, than they exist only in ourselves.

• The Wealth of Nations, the To advocate this study of con- theory of Malthus being the true sumption as over against produc- foundation of the science (P. tion, is what many are doing 4). now; but only Mr. Moffat has On the

we find, devoted an immense volume to à propos of Free Trade principles : the cause. One may be quite sure

“But a merely historical and that, within the compass of so dead science cannot, without large a book, the subject could injury, occupy the place of a have been exhausted. But Mr. living one ; and this is the posi

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tion to which orthodox Political not; but it was founded on some Economy is reduced. In the face very loose and inaccurate theoreti. of industrial facts—I should rather cal reasoning about a natural rate say of industrial revolutions of the of wages, and profits, and a wages most momentous character-Poli. fund (things which have no existtical Economy is dumb, or speaks ence); which, if it had any effect without authority and without in the minds of the labourers at effect.”

all, could only mislead them," &c. To this the reader will imme. This last sentence is quoted, in diately rejoin,-Were the Mal- order to show a favourite device of thusian theory of population to the author's; when a difficulty supply the orthodoxy of Free lurks in the way, he fires at it with Trade, would it have any voice blank cartridge, to frighten it off. whatever in affairs of practical life The reader, after reading the clause -business and government ? in brackets, is to trouble his head

“ The general doctrines of this no more about a wages fund, and school are, that the interests of is to imagine it proved a nonsociety are best served by leaving existent. Occasionally this bold to industry a wide field, entirely method is varied by the promises unrestricted, and that the interests of arguments further on ; but these of industry are promoted by being arguments are like Mr. Jingle's left under the sole control of luggage, which could never overindividual interest, which is deified take the brown-paper parcel. as a supreme power of industry, We have yet to look at the most under the name of competition. important section of the book

This school, as I have under notice, that which puts said, does not number among its forth positive doctrine. Having strict adherents any great authori. discussed and discarded competities, or any men of much depth of tion, trades unions, and arbitration, thought, who have given serious as regulators of consumption, Mr. consideration to social subjects." Moffat propounds the theory of a

“ Mill's proposals are unscien- time policy tific, being impracticable as well as “The nature and development morally outrageous.”

of this doctrine as embodying a “ John Stuart Mill is, however, policy may be thus stated. "When deeper in the mire of economical the labourer, unprovided with fallacies in regard to land than necessaries, has his whole time at Ricardo. His whole treatment of his command, he is absolutely conthe question . . . besides being strained to dispose of some of it without theoretical foundation, is in order to supply his wants. The deeply tainted with practical price obtainable for his labour, fallacies, especially with an utterly provided it is sufficient to meet his inadequate, superficial, and short- pressing wants, cannot and ought sighted view of motives."

not to be at this step a considera" Mr. Fawcett, who is by no tion with him. Being in want, he means an uncompromising enemy must work to supply his wants at of strikes, mentions some advice whatever price his labour will which he gave to the operative bring. But when by an instalment builders of London about a strike of his labour, provided he is able on which he seems to believe they to do this without exhausting his had injudiciously entered. I have whole labouring capacity, he has no means of knowing whether his met his most pressing wants, the advice was practically sound or value of his remaining labour

an

ought to rise. He is no longer in not he will reduce his time. It is absolute want, and can afford to demand or consumption that rewait and bargain before he disposes fuses to take his work, and forces of a larger amount of his time. If him to lessen production. Thus, he deems the price formerly ob- far from its being the case that the tained for his labour inadequate, labourer puts the pressure on those he is now in a position to demand for whom he labours, the reverse is more. If the second instalment the truth. procures him

advance in It need only be added that, as material comfort, he can be still this substitute for competition is more stringent in his demands in thoroughly impracticable, so the disposing of a third . . . . Any blows dealt at competition in its employment, then, at any remu- defence produce scarcely any effect. neration which enables him to What Mr. Moffat's policy aims at live, and leaves him a few moments is the maximum of effect, with the to breathe and say, 'I am a man,' minimum of effort. Competition is preferable to the state of idleness solves this problem better every and dependence or want. But when day. It enlarges the bounds of à labourer has provided for his the useful, by economising what pressing wants, any leisure that is before was wasted; it increases the left to him becomes valuable in

pro

value of articles, by creating speci. portion to its scarcity. By this ality of trades, and producing more natural principle of graduation the perfect work; it equalises prices, dignity of the labourer as a man by extending the market. Comis vindicated; as, although he may petition puts good horses in our surrender a part of his time on cabs ; it transports us by train at very easy terms, he does so ex- the rate of sixty miles an hour; it pressly in order that he may re- sends our messages to America in deem the rest, and raise it above a few minutes ; it puts the classics all pecuniary price.”

in the hands of poor students, and Thus a combination of workmen newspapers upon the workman's could endeavour to regulate, not breakfast table ; that breakfast wages, but hours of labour. table it furnishes with tea, coffee, Whenever a tendency to over-pro- and other luxuries ; it insures cheap duction was observed, a reduction bread and good bread ; if we find of working time would be effected. Sheffield tools too dear, it brings The labour within this working us cheaper tools from America; it time, as far as one can make out, fetches wire from Germany and would be open to competition. Belgium at this present moment, Most workmen would look upon and will continue to do this policy as ingenious—that it until own prices fall; it really is and as also satisfactory. transports raw cotton from India

The time being shortened, the to England, and sends it back rate of wages would rise ; and once woven for less than the cost of the rate of wages had risen, it native weaving; it brings us timber would be within the option of the from Canada, from Norway, from workmen to add the hour again, at the Baltic, and gives us our choice the increased rate.

at the same price; it gives us But in this scheme Mr. Moffat Veuve Cliquot in the Trossachs, and neglects that very consumption he Bass on the Righi; it enables a writes about. When there is a man to live comfortably for twelve tendency to over-production, the shillings a day in any town of operative cannot choose whether or Europe. It is the sworn enemy of

SO

our

scenes

He was

on

all lazy workmen. In the open portrait, etched by Rajon. The market it proclaims the price of an thing has been thoroughly done. article, without question regarding We feel bound to say for Mr. time spent in its production. Yet Smiles that with perhaps the it searches into the very roots of exception of the first chapter, which this production. It demands of describes ancient Cumberland the workman how much of the

and manners,

there is result falls to his share-of the carcely a word of his work seller, how much he paid for the superfluous or uninteresting. We raw material, how much profit he have accounts of George's father, takes over all. Here is a selection the

“ Statesman;

of his of the fittest! Mr. Moffat might own apprenticeship under Mesas soon attempt to fit a regulator senger,

the drunken Wigton on the revolving world as try to draper; of his falling into bad modify competition by his time

company, and gambling at such a policy

rate that even his master read him

sermons; of his reforming and George Moore. By S. Smiles. winning the respect of the whole London: Routledge and Co. 1878. town.

one occasion While George Moore of Bow sent to Dumfries with several Churchyard was alive, it probably hundred pounds for a cattle dealer. did not seriously occur to any of The dealer engaged him to help his friends that his life would ever in herding the cattle home, and be written. He was a great-hearted the two resolved to take a short cut merchant prince. His name was a across the Solway Sands. Here is synonym for pluck and sagacity a picturesque situation, with and uprightness in the business

hairbreadth escape : world. In the larger world he was " It was gloaming by this time, known as a munificent host and an and the line of English coastunfailing source of charity. But, about five miles distant-looked to be worthy of a biography now-a- like a fog bank. Night came on. days, a man must have been in It was too dark to cross then. something different from others They must wait till the moon rose. who have been before him. It was midnight before its glitter Even after Mr. Moore's death, shone upon the placid bosom of when Mr. Smiles talked to friends the Firth. The cattle dealer then of a biography, they said, “What rose, drew his beasts together, and can you make out of the life of a drove them in upon the sands. London Warehouseman ?" How. They had proceeded but a short ever, the short space of time since way when they observed that the Mr. Moore's death has sufficed to tide had turned. They pushed the show that even in London his beasts on with as much speed as position was unique, and not easy they could. The sands were to fill again. Jean Paul remarks

Jean Paul remarks becoming softer. They crossed that it is not until they make numberless pools of water. Then their exit that we applaud men and they saw the sea waves coming actors. Here, then, we have the upon them. On! On! It was too “Life of George Moore," a thick late. The waves, which sometimes octavo of 530 pages, with Watts's rush up the Solway three feet

a

“ Statesman Estate-man.

is the Cumberland name for anyone who farms his own land : the

abreast, were driving in amongst them. The doorkeepers had not the cattle. They were carried off noticed me. I walked into the their feet, and took to swimming. middle of the House. When I got The horses upon which George in I almost fainted with fear lest I Moore and his companion were should be discovered. I first got mounted also took to swimming. into a seat with the name of They found it difficult to keep the “Canning ” written upon it. I cattle together one at one side then proceeded to a seat behind, and one at the other. Yet they and sat there all the evening. I pushed on as well as they could. then heard Mr. Canning bring It was a swim for life. The cattle forward his motion to reduce the became separated, and were seen in duty on corn. He made a brilliant the moonlight swimming in all speech. He was followed by many directions. At last they reached other speakers. I sat out the firmer ground, pushed on, and whole debate.” landed near Bowness. But many How George fell in love with of the cattle had been swept his master's tiny daughter (afteraway.

wards marrying her), how he rose It will be observed that the to be the prince of commercial sentences of Mr. Smiles are very travellers, “ The Napoleon of short. They are not always as Watling-street,” how he entered graceful or as correct as might be, the firm of Groucock and Copebut somehow they suit the man he stake, and how in this position he writes about, and seem like echoes made himself known over the land of Moore's quick business step. as a really great and a good man,

Having exhausted the teaching Mr. Smiles must tell in his own Wigton tradesmen could give him, pages. Mr. Moore was fond of the draper's apprentice pushed on distributing large quantities of for London, where we find him, on improving books among his emthe first day after arrival, winning ployés and friends. Any merchant a prize in a great wrestling match. wishing to follow his example in His ways and looks were against this habit could find no better book him in all applications for employ- to begin with than this same “ Life ment. Meeking, of Holborn, asked of George Moore, Merchant and him if he wanted a porter's Philanthropist.” situation. This took the last bit of conceit out of the sturdy An Inland Voyage. By Robert Cumberland lad, but it did not Louis Stevenson, in 1 vol. : C. diminish his pluck. One of the Kegan Paul and Co. 1878. plucky things he did was to The pretty little picture on the march right into the House of cover of this volume, in which the Commons.

gilded river seems flooded with “I got a half holiday for the pur- sunshine, is a pleasantly fulfilled pose. I did not think of getting augury of its pages. Mr. Stevenan order from an M.P. Indeed, I son's style is full of a gentle had not the slightest doubt of humour and bright with the getting into the House. I first peculiar charm which a scholar alone tried to get into the Strangers' can impart. It belongs to a certain Gallery, but failed. I then hung fashion of writing, and can hardly about the entrance to see whether be called original, for it often I could find some opportunity. recalls, by the very freshness of its I saw three or four members simplicity, Thoreau and other quaint hurrying in, and I hurried in with authors. But, however much Mr.

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