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two Latin churches, a Latin hos- photographed for the Exploration pice, the English church, and many Fund. fine houses have been built within In conclusion, we heartily conthe last dozen years; hence the gratulate the society on having so very white and new appearance of good a result to show as these two the town.”
volumes—the forerunner of their Mr. Conder's conclusions with great work—and on having found regard to the Samaritans, founded one so competent to describe as partly on his own personal inquiry, well as to organise and carry on partly based upon authority, and the Survey as Lieutenant Conder. reinforced by reference to the his. They have done wisely in sending tory and customs of the people, them forth as a popular account of lead him to the belief that they what has been done; and Mr. are the only true descendants of Conder has given to this record of Israel, “ the only remnant of the his professional operations the Ten Tribes,” with the exception, vivacity of personal adventure, as perhaps, of those still dispersed in well as placed Palestine vividly Assyria, who have, however, de- before the reader. The hamlets, serted their original faith. This is representing sites older than the their own belief as to their origin; time of Joshua, with their deserted that they are of the same stock appearance in keeping with the with the Jews is confirmed by their antiquity of their history, owing physiognomy, notwithstanding that mainly to the absence of the glazed there have been no intermarriages windows of Europe, and of confor certainly more than two thou- trast between roof and wall, are sand years, as well as by the fact for instance thus faithfully dethat their sacred book is a version
“The peasant hut is of the Pentateuch, and their reli- in Palestine merely four walls of gion a form of Judaism. Before mud, with a roof of boughs covered the time of Ezra their religious also with mud; hence the village, standard was fixed, and their doc- which consists perhaps of fifty trines are in the main identical or sixty such cabins, huddled with the most ancient Jewish party, together without plan or order, the Karaite or Sadducean; and, as and gradually climbing the slope Mr. Conder pertinently puts it so that the floor of one is level (vol. 1, p. 60), “ It is inconceivable with the roof of another, has an that they should have adopted uniform grey colour, only broken Jewish dogmas at a period when by the whitewashed dome of the they were distinguished by their little chapel dedicated to the hatred of that nation.” Dean patron prophet or Sheikh." Nor Stanley's visit to the Samaritans is it merely in the actual appearis well known, and has been told ance of the country, the stony pictorially in his most charming colourless land, that the descriptions manner; the account (vol. 1, p. 50) of these volumes excel, but in the of the opening the roll of Abishuah illustrations we may gather from may be taken as a fitting pendant, them of other matters or that are coupled with the further account brought from elsewhere in explanaof the so-called “Fire-tried Manu- tion of themselves. A mosque, for script," inferior, indeed, in import instance, the second mosque in the ance to the Abishuah roll which middle of the town of Ramleh was Mr. Conder allowably calls the visited by Mr. Conder on the road Samaritan Fetish, but still of great to Jerusalem and found to be interest. It has, we hear, been probably “ the most perfect
specimen of a fine twelfth-century has been usurped as a privilege by church in Palestine, unchanged, others, is the significant paragraph except that the beautiful western (p. 27), “Standing on the approxidoorway is closed, a prayer recess mate site of the old Tower of scooped in the southern wall, Psephinus, the Russian Hospice and the delicate tracery of the commands the whole town of columns defaced in whitewash Jerusalem, and is thought by and plaster ”—a vandalism not many to be in a position designedly peculiar to Moslem restorers. There of military strength.” is in Ramleh a fine old ruined building, the White Mosque, with The Gold Mines of Midian and the its beautiful tower of
Ruined Midianite Cities : A FortForty"-according to the Moslems, night's Tour in North-Western companions of the prophet, ac- Arabia. By RICHARD F. BURTON. cording to Christian tradition the London: C. Kegan Paul and Co. forty martyrs of Cappadocia. This 1878. has attracted all visitors, and the Captain Burton gives us in this second church or mosque has till book an account of the pioneering now been overlooked ; and very expedition undertaken, at the inprobably, as he says, Mr. Conder stance of the Viceroy of Egypt, to has been the first to visit it since verify a supposed discovery of gold Sir John Maundeville. It is the made by him a quarter of a century church described by him ago in the land of Midian. А dedicated to the Virgin, “ where larger expedition has lately returned our Lord appeared to our Lady in to Cairo bringing with it, as the the likeness which betokeneth the first fruits of success, some five and Trinity." We adduce this as an twenty tons' weight of valuable instance of the many points of minerals, and announcing discovery interest in these volumes subordi- of numerous ruined cities and halfnate to the main subject. Pales- worked gold mines. If all that is tine was, for instance, emphatically reported be true, the sorrow of the the country of the Crusades; and Egyptian bondholders will at many a light on the European length be turned into frantic joy, history of those ages may be and Ismail may indulge in his thrown by these incidental notices. enlightened but very expensive The magnificent church mentioned tastes without the dread of immep. 19 remains almost intact diate bankruptcy. Captain Burton as erected by the Crusaders over has done great things in his time, the spring of Ananoth : “ on its and attempted more. He has walls dim shadows of frescoed travelled over many lands, he has paintings can be traced, and over helped to explore the Equatorial these names of pilgrims rudely lakes, he has joined as a Moslem scrawled."
worshipper with true believers in Something like a commentary on the temple of Mecca, and he was the pretext of protectorate for the once ready to enrich his country Holy Places in the Muscovite with the produce of some West Tsar, as a mask for his own in- African mines if it had not been roads, or a plausible pretension for the stupidity of a Secretary of that he alone of all men is vindi- State. It appears that when he cating at once the rights and, liber- first attempted to push his Midianties of Christians and preserving tish find he called
tish find he called upon the English the actual sepulchre of Christ, and Consul—whose name he mercifully restoring it to its true place, which withholds--who brusquely repulsed
him, saying that, in his opinion, or rather transcended. “It is hard “Gold was becoming too common.” indeed,” says the enthusiastic capUpon this Captain Burton remarks, tain, “to see any limit to her “ Marvellous to relate, the same
All that is wanted for was made to
me by a this colossal future is the gold, Secretary of State when I offered which is now to be had without to open up some most valuable stint from this first, and—thanks diggings on the West Coast of to modern quartz crushers---latest Africa, if he would appoint me of Dorados. Governor, assist me with half a West Whatever may be the value of India regiment, and not inquire too the discoveries--and we hope they curiously into local matters. It is may turn out all that is expected, impossible to understand such hoping also that the over-Iord at men: they go back to the child. Stamboul
not be able to make hood of our race.” Captain Burton any valid claim upon the treasures does not seem to have felt the -the narrative is interesting, parnaïveté of the conditions, nor to ticularly to naturalists and geohave suspected that he was, perad- graphers. Of personal incident venture, being bantered by the men there is but little, and therefore the in authority! (p. 247.)
book will be rapidly skimmed by Mrs. Burton, who has seen her the general reader, who will, howhusband's volume through the ever, be amused occasionally by press, tells us in her preface that characteristic specimens of encyclotwenty-five years ago he was pædic ostentation. What Captain romantic youth, and only thought of Burton believes he states strongly; winning his spurs, with a chivalrous and he believes much which many contempt for filthy lucre; and so he will question, and questions much kept his golden secret until he saw which many have good reasons for Egypt in distress for gold. This believing. is wifely and becoming on Mrs. The first two chapters are taken Burton's part; but it cannot well up with a comparison of the Egypt be reconciled with his attempt to of five-and-twenty years ago and interest Abbas Pacha in his dis- the Egypt of our own day. Incicovery through the medium of the dentally an account of good old stolid or facetious consul.
Shepheard-known favourably to The actual finder of the auri. so many travellers to and from ferous sand was not, however, India- will be read by all who Captain Burton, but one Haji knew him with very agreeable Wali, an old acquaintance of the feelings. traveller. Rather ungenerously,
Those who wish to pronounce Mrs. Burton tries to filch his fame accurately words in common use from the poor old Arab, though will be glad to learn that Khediv is nothing can be clearer from the a dissyllable, and not, as the French narrative than that he and nobody make it, Khedivé. Captain Burton else scooped up the sand which has is scrupulous in showing, by his led to such happy results. It is manner of spelling, how the Arabic the old story of sic vos non vobis. names should be sounded, although The name of the Arab will be for
it is not easy to see what advangotten, and that of Burton will go tage is gained by writing the down the ages as the restorer of familiar Bedouin “Bedawin," and prosperity to that most ancient so in similar cases. It is much to be land. The glories of the most wished that there were some simple glorious Pharaohs are to be revived, recognised code of spelling Oriental words. We believe that there are replenishes the fountain in the at least a dozen ways of spelling hills. It would almost appear the word which the traveller hears that those who deny the existence first and last in Eastern climes- of a wages fund puzzle themselves Backsheesh.
over the single question-one that
might be relegated to the metaThe Economy of Consumption. physician – whether demand or By R. S. Moffat. London: C. supply confers the name of wealth Kegan Paul and Co. 1878.
on external nature. This question Only the irony of fate could have once at rest, surely it is as undeni. produced a contrast so amusing as able that supply and demand that to which the dull world of support each other, as it is that economics has lately been treated. the egg produces the hen, and the Almostly simultaneously with Pro- hen the egg. The same partiality fessor Jevons's admirable little of view is entertained with regard “ Primer of Political Economy,” to capital. The capitalist's demand appeared Mr. Moffat's "Economy for labour is dependent on the of Consumption,” a bulky volume consumer. The capitalist demands of nearly 700 pages, entitled only for the consumer. Any argu“An Omitted Chapter in Political ment that even for a moment lays Economy.” Thus, while Professor production at the door of capital Jevons considers it possible to state is short-sighted; for the capitalist the leading doctrines of science in not only sells, but buys. He is 134 pages, Mr. Moffat, were his an exchanger, and the old quibble other chapters on the same scale applies to him, “How can I pay as this, in order to develop his you except you lend to me?” God theory would require the space of created male and female, but not Custodi's fifty octavos, so lamented producers and consumers, distinct as waste paper by Gioja.
from each other. Mr. Moffat has really two recom- Let us enlarge a little. The mendations fitting him for the task single inducement, economically, he has undertaken: he is earnest, which leads a man to convert any and he has found a serious flaw in part of his possessions into capital the accepted systems of economics. is the demand of others for comNo juster accusation be modities. If the demand be small, brought against modern English with little prospect of considerable teaching of political economy than profit, the man of wealth spends that it bestows too much attention unproductively what might otheron production and too little on wise have been spent productively. consumption. The neglect of con- But all that is needed to convert sumption was the grand error of a great part of wealth into capital Ricardo, led to a dilemma in Stuart -even if the wealth be that of a Mill's doctrine, and still confounds duke—is a sufficiently keen demand those who deny the existence of a upon production. It is demand, wages fund. To speak of relative rather than production, that detervalues, rates of wages, rates of mines the quantity of market comprofits, is to speak of ripples on the modities. Everything a man prostream: the stream itself remains duces he may not sell; but every, to be considered. What is its thing he creates an effective demand apparent source ? Supply. In for-that is, everything he desires what does it end? Consumption, and can pay for-he is pretty sure or demand. But demand of obtaining. If it be demand, then, plenishes supply as the that limits profitable production,
it must be demand that limits trough after crest. Does the crest the source of production-capital. cause the trough, or the trough What the capitalist pays for is cause the crest? The wind causes labour. If it be he, and not the both. The sea is life, and the wind consumer, who stands in need of
desire. Desire raised the first the labour, he will buy it so long ripple; the last ripple will die as lie has any wealth. But no. It with it. appears that the manufacturer A Parisian produces some “nogives up his mill, dismisses his
velty”—to use a draper's word. hands, and stays at home whenever None has seen the like before. It demand for his article ceases. Yet is impossible that a special demand he has plenty wherewith to pay existed for it, when itself it did labour. But not capital. It would not exist. Someone may say that seem that ultimately the capitalist I, who buy this novelty, do not is the only member of society who demand labour, since I had no does not buy labour for itself. As conception of the article until I a man of wealth he keeps a retinue saw it in the shop window. There of servants, pays Salvini to act for is a truer view of the case than him, and Patti to sing for him, that. Everyone is pleased with a and Joachim to play for him, and novelty. The Parisian knew this. Millais to paint for him ; but he Many novelties had he produced tells his workpeople that neither before; and they sold till they to oblige them nor to oblige the became as common as dust. His republic will he lay out capital, putation was established. Buyers unless with the help of, and under came yearly from various countries inducement from, demand ; and to see what he had to show them. even when demand continues, he As often as they came, they filled is often glad to cease being a manu- his order-book, and through it his facturer, so soon as he has earned
purse. At the approach of last what is called a competency. season he said to himself: “These Here lies the weak point in buyers will shortly be here; I the argument of such as deny that must invent something for them.” a demand for commodities is a It was all a tacit agreement. The demand for labour. They do not Parisian was virtually engaged to distinguish sufficiently between produce a novelty; the buyers demand in the primary sense of were virtually engaged to purchase the word and demand in its eco- it. He produced it; they bought nomical sense-effective demand. it. Now, it was not that special Effectively to demand is to pro- article they gave an order for, but duce; and to produce is to call into labour. He was to labour till he existence effective demand. Antici. produced something good, and pation, indeed, may obscure the they would pay him. So much for fact somewhat; but anticipation is the manufacturer and his wholea difference of time, not of cause. sale customers. But I-did I, in
Supply—what does it mean? buying the novelty, purchase the A filling up-of desire. Want first Parisian's labour ?
There is no taught man to use his hands. The need for saying so, though it might true solution of the problem here truly be admitted. Why did those touched upon is probably to be firms send buyers to buy of the found in the consideration of man's Parisian ? I and a thousand others illimitable wants. Labour alone patronize a certain firm in the City. satisfies these wants. On the sea, We are all known in the shop, and crest comes after trough, and those behind the counter have