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collect his ideas sufficiently to see taken up with an account of experithe drift of twenty-one observa- ments on the more obscure parts tions each with a long commentary, of this new science, and, if more of which the following is a fair difficult in itself, is written with specimen : "On the whole, certain

more interest. The whole work kinds of particles affect certain is most instructive, not only to parts of the spectrum ;” and, those who have an interest in the although he will infallibly give up subject itself, but to those also who his attempt to understand what feel an interest in tracing the definite light spectroscopic re- progress of a science. Perpetual searches throw on atoms and illustrations will be found in it of molecules, and fail to participate in how facts run counter to expectathe author's sense of the beautiful, tions; and yet how essential the which is much gratified every here habit of forming and testing expecand there by some intricate ex- tations is to the advance of know. perimental arrangement, yet he ledge. will be rewarded by many curious The sentence with which the facts, and amused also in many work opens we question in several places. For instance, he will learn points, though it expresses quite that it is almost certain that since the ordinary view : the year 1860 a new metal has “ The work of the true man of either made its appearance in the Science is a perpetual striving after sun, or at any rate exists now in a better and closer knowledge of enormously greater quantities in the planet on which his lot is cast, the sun's atmosphere than it did and of the universe in the vastness eighteen years ago. This metal is of which that planet is lost. The one which gives a brilliant red only way of doing this effectually colour to flame when heated, and is to proceed as gradually, and is called Strontium.

therefore as surely as possible, He will learn also the surprising along the dim untrodden ground fact that the greatest modern im- lying beyond the known. Such is provement in telescopes is the scientific work. There is no magic, production of one through which no fetish in it. There is no special it is impossible to see anything; class of men to whom it is given indeed, that this is the “telescope to become more familiar with the of the future,” as far as spectro- beauties and secrets of nature than scopy is concerned.

another. Each of us by his own The fact is that the


work and thought, if he so choose, most effective in producing a pho- may enlarge the circle of his own tographic image are not those knowledge at least, and thus make which, when they impinge on the the universe more and more beauretina, produce the sensation of tiful, to himself at all events, if light, but ones which lie beyond not to others.” the last visible rays towards the By science we understand studied violet end of the spectrum. They and proven knowledge of facts, but can only be brought to a focus so can see no reason why the “ true as to give a clear image available " should be confined to the for photographing, by grinding a study of what is external to himself, lens purposely adapted for this one that is, of what is but his dwellingobject; and the other rays of light place. "The

“The proper study of manare therefore left out of considera

kind is man,

was said long ago : tion altogether.

there is no reason, so far as we can The latter part of the book is see, why psychic anthropology

that are



should not be included among the tive quality in English art. But objects of scientific study. Fur- the imaginative faculty of the thermore, it is stated by Mr. Prime Minister is not that which Lockyer that there is no class of Mr. Goschen would have us culti. men to whom more than another it vate. is given to become familiar with To Johnson's Dictionary we are the beauties and secrets of nature. referred for the true meaning of This is inaccurate. As, with regard imagination. The first definition to the psychic and artistic revela- given Mr. Goschen is quite willing tions which the world possesses, to uphold : Imagination is “the they are invariably due to persons power of forming ideal pictures.” of rare and unusual temperament;

With the second he also agrees ; so it is with the discoveries known but with a little ironic intensificaas science.

The discoverers are tion of accent on one word this men of refined faculty, definition might suit Lord Beaconspatience, and accurate habit quite field's academic imagination as beyond the average qualities of well : Imagination is “the power men. No set of boors, no bar- of representing absent things to barian race, no crowd of heavy ourselves and to others." bucolic louts, no men of unopened Imagination is image-forming, and untrained minds would be at and to be truly imaginative is to all competent to perform the deli- form honest images of what we see.. cate processes of scientific investi- There is historic imagination by gation. Because a gaping crowd which we call up pictures of great will laugh at an explosion produced epochs, moving dramas of men. by a popularising lecturer, it would There is the imagination of be altogether. idle to affirm that memory, by which we recall scenes they are capable of “scientific that we have visited, and regild work.” There is magic in science them with the sunshine in which as much as in any other way into

saw them.

There is poetic the unknown. And there is fetish imagination unto which thoughts in it, inasmuch as a scientific worker and feelings come, not as abstract would find it as hopeless to put and remote, but instinct with life average stupidity into an apprecia- and firm in ideal form and beauty. tive position like his own, as a There is spiritual imagination, priest or seer of the old days found through which the things not seen it to communicate to undeveloped crowd upon the mirror of the minds a consciousness of the depth inner eye. and greatness of truths that became Mr. Goschen, a successful busimanifest to himself.

ness man, strives to open out the

vistas of imagination to such as The Cultivation of the Imagina- have narrow careers and stunted tion. By the Right Hon. George J. lives. He seeks to enlarge symGoschen, M.P. London: Effing- pathy, and to expand the untrained ham Wilson, 1878.

mind into the faculty of deriving The imagination of Lord Beacons pleasure from mental change of field is a very different entity from scene. The business man of the that of Mr. Goschen, and perhaps smaller order is apt to deride all nearer in fact to the popular con- but the strictly utilitarian, because ception of the word. Lord Beacons- he thinks he would lose money by field's imagination it is that dreaming Probably he would enables him to tell the Academi. but he would as probably gain by cians that imagination is a distinc- a controlled faculty of dream, a


power of rapid review, and clear and braces the limbs.

and braces the limbs. Well, so I marshalling of circumstances in believe that that mental change of their varied aspects.

When a scene which I recommend will shopkeeper sees a picture of him- bring colour into your minds, will self grown poor and gentlemanly brace you to greater activity, and through growth of ideal power will in every way strengthen both and diminution of the hard grip your intellectual and your moral upon solid realities, he is then faculties. I want you—if I may indulging in imagination of a fervid use the phrase — to breathe the kind. We all possess imagination bracing ozone of the imaginain different degree; with some, tion." however, the faculty, if we may A very happy instance, too, is coin an ugly word, should rather

the following: be described as imagunculation. “Some eight years ago I met a

Mr. Goschen does not decline distinguished modern poet, calling the challenge of the nature to at the same house where I was whom the cultivation of the “main calling, and he asked, "What bechance" is the sole imaginable comes of all the Senior Wranglers heaven. But he first enters a pro- and of all the Oxford first-class test against the over-estimation of men? One does not hear of them that which claims the name of in after-life.'

I ventured very “practical.” He says, “Its mar- modestly to say in reply that, not ketable use is not the only test, or being a Cambridge man, I could even the chief test, to which we not speak on behalf of Cambridge ought to look in education; and I men; but as to Oxford I was able decline to have these courses of to inform him that eight of her studies simply tried by the bearing first-class men were at that moment they may have on the means of in Her Majesty's Cabinet.” gaining a livelihood." Mr. Goschen, Turning to the “ general roughit should be named, is addressing and-tumble of business life,” Mr. the Liverpool Institute. In re- Goschen instances the case of his sponding to the practicalist's own father, who came to England challenge, his main point is as saturated with German literature, follows:

and with very little money ; yet he “ Do not believe for one moment founded a firm whose business Mr. -I am rather anxious on this point Goschen has reason to appreciate - that the cultivation of this highly. faculty will disgust you or dis- There are many points in this qualify you for your daily tasks. brief and terse essay that we have I hold a very contrary view. I not space to touch upon. One is spoke just now of mental change the necessity in this important little of scene, and as the body is better island of political responsibility and for a change of scene and a change capable public opinion. We turn of air, so I believe that the mind away with regret from Mr. Goschen's is also better for occasional excellent counterblast to narrowchanges of mental atmosphere. I mindedness. do not believe that it is good either for men or women always Tent Work in Palestine : a record to be breathing the atmosphere of of discovery and adventure. By the business in which they are Claude Regnier Conder, R.E., themselves engaged.

You know officer in command of the Survey how a visit to the seaside some- Expedition. Published by the times brings colour to the cheeks Committee of the Palestine Ex



ploration Fund. 2 vols. London: the name, definite indications," Bentley, 1878.

such as measured distances, or some This modest title hardly does connection with existing buildings justice to the book ; for, though or relative position to known sites ; intended as a popular account of still, further, “ the site,” we afterthe Palestine Exploration Survey, wards find, “must show traces of it is a not inadequate instalment of antiquity, and the name must be the record itself, and is certainly placed beyond suspicion of being a very competent account of its of recent or spurious origin: the results. The Survey, now in pre- correspondence of modern and paration, will be given in twenty-six ancient titles must be not merely sheets of map, on a scale one inch apparent, but radically exact." It to the mile, with memoirs, one to is a well-defined rule; and,“ failing every sheet; showing “ towns, vil- these requirements, no identificalages, ruins, roads, tombs, caves, tion will stand” is the rigorous cisterns, well springs, rock-cut penalty of its infringement. From winepresses ; as well as cultiva

this we may judge the standard tion and wild growth ;” every relic

lic applied by Lieutenant Conder to of antiquity, the heights of the own work of discovery, and the hills, and the levels of the two seas, challenge he offers to his critics. fixed to within a foot. For the first Another point of great importance time then, and as the reward of is the application of tradition, and these efforts, Palestine is brought in particular of Christian tradition, home to England. The committee, to identification, especially while preserving to themselves in affecting the authenticity of the their preface the disclaimer of their Holy Places. Except as to the chairman as to responsibility for Grotto of Bethlehem, no Christian his conclusions, commissioned tradition can be traced to a period Lieutenant Conder to write this earlier than the fourth century. account of the work carried out by and, even with that restriction, him, and of the results which to him though offering valuable indicaseemed of most general interest. tions, can hardly be taken as authoThis is the book now before us. ritative at that date ; but Christian Topography, archæology, and the sites are often fixed, or at least study of the people may be con- corroborated, by Jewish tradition, sidered as the three heads under and in such a case as these history which its subject is treated. The is thus carried back to an earlier author's remarks on identification source, and the character of the apply to all new discoveries in an tradition is enhanced. Another ancient country, but are in an source of corroboration is to be especial manner applicable to found in the Moslem tradition. Of Palestine, and yet more to what is this, indeed, Mr Conder does not put forward as the main object of seem to have made much use; but, the Survey-Biblical elucidation. when Jewish, Christian, and “Identification,” that is, the Moslem tradition, and veneration recovery of an ancient historic site, also, as evidenced by pilgrimage,

requires, says Lieutenant concur, authenticity may well be Conder, “first, the suitability of considered as presumptively estabthe position to all the known lished. The site of the sepulchres accounts of the place,” itself a large of the Patriarchs, for instance, requirement; "second, the preser- pointed out by Jew, Christian, and vation of all the radical parts

of the Moslem, may reasonably be taken name"; "third, in case of the loss of as agreeable to very ancient tradi. tion. If the space at our disposal grel Levantine. Mr. Conder's ophad allowed, we should gladly have portunities for observations on the here added a quotation of exceed. Fellahin were peculiar, for he lived ing pertinence on this subject from amongst them. His “Tent Work” M. Renan, who will at least be was a tent life amidst them; and allowed to be an unexceptionable he has in his 9th chapter amply witness in favour of traditions. described their way of life and We should have done so all the habits, with due discrimination as more readily that his name is not with a view to elucidate the problem among the list of writers Mr.

of their origin. We think he has Conder gives as those whom he quite established his position that quotes or to whom he refers. The the Fellahin of to-day are the wild theories of the mediæval actual descendants and the real chroniclers—contradictions alike of representatives of the ancient in. Biblical accounts and of the habitants of the land, and that they earlier Pilgrims-very properly find carry with them evidence of this scant notice in these volumes. in their character, their language, Tobler's "Palestrinæ Descriptiones" and their religion, the three fundais the repertory for everything in mental characteristics of nationality the way of information upon every

from which their origin may be thing of early date relative to the rightly conjectured, and their subject. We are fairly told, at peculiarities accounted for. We p. xxi, of the preface, that "the refer to Mr. Conder's pages for main object of the Survey of details, only remarking that he Palestine may be said to have been gives quite examples enough to to collect materials in illustration connect the present peasant dialect of the Bible.” This no doubt is with the old Aramaic, which St. so, and very properly; none the Jerome tells us was the language less has that been kept in view by of the natives of Palestine in the Mr. Conder himself, while at the fourth century. In regard to the same time allied subjects have other subjects of

other subjects of comparisonbeen duly investigated and carried character and religion-it is to be forward.

borne in mind that this is a Semitic One of the most generally inter- and not an Aryan people that is esting parts of the work is the 8th treated of, and that the investigachapter, p. 204, vol. ii., on the tion is to be dealt with from a origin of the Fellahin; and this Semitic point of view. This settled should be read in conjunction with population of the villages in the second and third chapters on Palestine is nowise to be the Samaritans and the Survey of founded with the nomadic tribes, Samaria. The result of Mr. Čon. the Bedouin, as they term themder's investigation is shortly this: selves, the Arabs as they are that the Fellahin are the descend. called by the Fellahin. We cannot ants of the old inhabitants of but notice too, while speaking of Palestine, and that those are the the inhabitants, the accidental natives of the land. He terms them testimony to the tolerance of the “the Syrians, for want of a better Turkish rule, which again receives title.” They are, in fact, the pre- testimony in an unexpected manner sent peasantry of the land, forming, at p. 139, vol. i: “Twenty years with Jews and Arabs, the in- ago Nazareth was a poor village; habitants of the country plus the now it is a flourishing town. The admixture of foreign residents, the freedom given to religious worship German, the Turk, and the mon- by the Turks has been remarkable:


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