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stop to the sports; and if they do the public will not strongly disapprove, though Dublin will thereby lose one of its few amusements. But, even if not wholly forbidden, it seems certain that they will be placed under very much more stringent restrictions than hitherto. In particular it seems very desirable that every person who partakes in the management of the sports should be amenable to College discipline. All this will, no doubt, get settled in time; but meanwhile there has been great mischief and sore scandal, and the continuance of the sports is brought into very serious peril.

Trinity Term does not end until the 7th of July, so we have still some days before Long Vacation. I do not know whether it will be worth while writing to you before next term, but if any interesting changes should meanwhile occur in our “skin' or our “spots," I shall not fail to let you know.


June 3rd.


The building, in which the business of this institution and of University College, Toronto, is conducted, is unusually fine for a colonial, or even an imperial structure. It is situated in a splendid park of more than 100 acres, and approached by beautiful avenues of considerable length, planted with trees on either side. The description given of it by Mr. Black, in his “Green Pastures and Piccadilly,” is by no inappropriate:

"There was one point about Toronto which they did most honestly and warmly admire, and that was the Norman-Gothic University. To tell the truth, we had not seen much that was striking in the way of architecture since we crossed the Atlantic ; but the simple grace and beauty of this grey stone building wholly charmed these careless travellers; and again and again they spoke of it in after days when our eyes could get nothing to rest upon but tawdry brick and discoloured wood.”

This is not a Government structure; neither the Legislature nor the people gave one cent towards the erection of the edifice, the finishing of the interior, or the purchase of the park. The building was erected, and the library, museum, and lecture room equipped, from the sale of the lands granted originally by his Majesty George III., for the benefit of education in Upper Canada, to the U.E. (United Empire) Memorialists, who first settled in this province. Subsequently these lands were granted, through the advocacy of Archdeacon Strachan (afterwards first Bishop of Toronto, and also first President of King's College, Toronto), by his Majesty George IV., for the foundation of a University at York, now Toronto. But both Government and Legislature have often interfered with this University, and, in the majority of instances, beneficially. At present the former are by statute trustees of the property, appoint the President and other officials of the University College, and exercise control over the statutes enacted by the Council and Senate; whilst, as early as 1837, the latter altered the provisions of the Royal Charter, under which the University of King's College, York, was organised, subsequently repealed the Act of 1837, establishing in 1850 a University of Toronto in lieu of the University of King's College,


and finally, in 1853, divided the institution into two-the University of Toronto, and University College, Toronto, which, it was intended, should be after the model of similar establishments in London, England. From the balance of the purchase of these lands remaining after the erection of the building, the finishing of the interior, and the previous purchase of the park, both the University and College are supported; and so anxious have been the officials that the people at large should derive the benefit of the endowment, that the following scale of fees has been adopted :

UNIVERSITY.–For Matriculation, 5 dollars (or about twenty shillings sterling); for each examination after matriculation, 2 dollars ; for charge of Faculty, 4 dollars; for admission ad eundem statum, 6 dollars; for the first degree in University, 6 dollars; for every subsequent degree, 8 dollars; for admission ad eundem gradum, 10 dollars. COLLEGE.

For admission as a Matriculated Student to all the required lectures, 10 dollars (or about 21. sterling) per academic year.

În addition to this unprecedented lowness of fees, forty-five scholarships, of the value each of about 120.00 dollars, are annually offered for competition. Of the course of examination required in the University, and of study pursued in the College, it is sufficient at present to state that it is throughout divided into Pass and Honour subjects; and that, at the final examination for B.A., there are five departments of honour, or triposes, viz. : Classics (including Greek and Latin), Mathematics, Modern Languages (including English, French, German, and Italian), Natural Sciences (including Chemistry, Zoology and Botany, Mineralogy, and Geology), and Metaphysics and Ethics; whilst Oriental languages (including Hebrew, Chaldee, and Syriac) constitute an Optional Department, and may be accepted as an alternative for French and German.

Although the charter was given in 1827, the establishment was not opened for the admission of students until 1843, when His Excellency Sir Charles Bagot was Chancellor, and Rev. John M'Caul, LL.D., was Vice-President, by whom the arrangements were made, and the curricula were prepared. That for Arts was for a three years' course previously to taking the degree of B.A. This remained until 1853, when the Faculties of Medicine and Law were abolished as parts of University instruction, in addition to that of Divinity, which was removed in 1850. Then the curriculum for undergraduates in Arts was extended to four years, at which it still remains.

It may be useful, to prevent useless applications, to state that this University confers no honorary degrees. All such distinctions are to be acquired only by proficiency tested by examination.

This first contribution being occupied with explanatory details, I hope to write further to convey a more interior picture of our life and aims here. I retain an old affection for your Magazine, as it was originated in my time, and I was familiar with the original editors.


Studies in Literature, 1789-1877. Revival and its literature and liteBy Edward Dowden, LL.D., Pro- rary representatives as a companion fessor of English Literature in the volume to the present one.

The University of Dublin, author of first three essays may be regarded “Shakspeare-His Mind and Art," as introductory to the rest. They “Poems, &c. London: C. Kegan mark out in broad lines the characPaul and Co., 1878.

teristics of the age, which are after“Upon the whole, I have cared wards expanded into greater detail more to understand than to object; in the studies of the individual I have tried rather to interpret than writers of the period. We quote to judge.” So the author prefaces the following passage from the these Studies, and to this liberal “ Transcendental Movement and its principle of criticism he has faith- Literature," as illustrative of the fully adhered, taking broad and style, though it is difficult to detach generous views of epochs of litera- a small portion from the context ture and the men that have made without injustice: or filled them. These views are “If ever our democratic age be expressed in simple, vigorous, and organised, the organisation will be at times even eloquent language. not for a class but for the entire

In the first essay Professor Dow- society-for workman as well as den examines into the chief ten- capitalist, for peasant as well as dencies of the literature of this proprietor, for woman as well as century, and defines them as (1) man; and such a complex organiRevolutionary or Democratic Move- sation cannot be the product of one ment, (2) Scientific Movement, (3) day, nor of one century. We acMediæval Revival, (4) Transcen- cept courageously the rudeness of dental Movement; and proceeds to our vast industrial civilisation. further analyse the first of these The results of that other movement moveme and its effects on litera- also, the scientific, which Mr. Rusture. The second and third essays kin passionately reproaches or reare devoted respectively to the gards with smiling disdain, we “ Transcendental Movement and accept with gratitude. And yet Literature” and the “Scientific were these our sole sources of hope, Movement and Literature." To to some of us the burden of life these the author had intended to would seem to be hardly worth add a fourth on the “Mediæval taking up. Accumulated materials, Revival,” but he abandoned the whether materials for food, fire, idea, concluding that he could not and clothing, or materials of knowdo justice to the subject within ledge to feed the intellect, do not the brief limits of an essay. This satisfy the soul. Are we tempted is to be regretted, as it detracts to enter the fierce struggle for masomewhat from the completeness terial success? Are we tempted to of the work, unless he contem- forfeit our highest powers in the plates treating of the Mediæval mere collection and systematising of knowledge? Let us pause; if Edgar Quinet, and Victor Hugo our utmost ambition were grati- are the chief ones selected. There fied, how barren a failure would be is also an interesting study of the such success? Nay, even in duties, minor writers of verse of the period in the items of a laborious morality, 1830 - 1877, as representing the we may cease to possess that life various features of the age. which is also light and incommu- The concluding essay is devoted nicable peace.

Surrounded with to the Poetry of Democracy, with possessions of wealth, of state, of which is coupled the name of Walt splendour, or of culture, of erudi- Whitman. Whitman's work has tion, of knowledge, or even of the met with much misrepresentation dutiful works of a servant who is and ridicule from English, and not a son, the inmost self may be perhaps even more from American poor, shrunken, starved, miserable, critics. Dr. Dowden interprets him dead. What shall it profit a man in a spirit of candour and fairness, though he gain the whole world and of large tolerance of his freeand lose his own soul?

dom of speech, regarding it as the “And what shall it profit an age,

natural reaction from the unhealthy a generation of men, if it lose its asceticism of the past. He makes own soul? We accept joyfully the us feel the freedom and lovingness facts of material progress.

Tons and simple greatness of the man of iron, tons of coal, corn, and wine, who is the outcome and truest reprecotton and hemp, firkins of the best sentative of his age and nation, the butter, barrels of salted pork ; let representative in art of American these have their praises, and be democracy." chanted in the hymns of our poets “He delights in men, and neither of democracy. Knowledge about approaches deferentially those who the brains of an ape, knowledge are above him, nor condescendingly about the coprolites of an extinct gazes upon those who are beneath. brute, the dust of stars, the


He is the comrade of every man, of frogs, the vibrations of a nerve; high and low. His admiration of to such knowledge we cry hail, and a strong, healthy, and beautiful give it joyous welcome. Then, body, or a strong, healthy, and none the less, we ask, “But the beautiful soul, is great when he soul-what of it? What of the sees it in a statesman or a savant; most divine portion of the life of a it is precisely as great when he man, and of a society of men ? sees it in the ploughman or the

To these essays succeed a study smith. Every variety of race and on “ The Prose Works of Words- nation, every condition in society, worth,” one on

" Walter Savage every degree of culture, every Landor," distinguished for the season of human life, is accepted even justice with which the balance by Whitman as admirable and is held between the greatness of best, each in its own place. the man and his defects; another Working men of every name—all on “Mr. Tennyson and Mr. Brown- who engage in field-work, all who ing," in which the antitheses be- toil upon the sea, the city artisan, tween the two are well worked out. the woodsman and the trapper, But to our thinking the finest essays fill him with pleasure by their in the book are those on George presence; and that they are inEliot and her work, in which Dr. teresting to him not in a general Dowden has brought both head and way of theory or doctrine (a piece heart to his task.

of the abstract democratic creed), Of French writers, Lammenais, but in the way of close, vital



and say,

human sympathy, appears from would rather have been otherwise the power he possesses of bringing employed. It apparently consists before us with strange precision, of short extracts from lecture note vividness and nearness in a few books, which are accurate and to decisive strokes


essential the point, because the author is a characteristics of their respective scientific man, but are neither modes of living. If the strong, pleasantly written nor easily to be full-grown working man wants a understood.

Occasionally, as if lover and comrade, he will think remembering that he is writing for Walt Whitman especially made for the general public, the author inhim. If the young man wants one,

troduces what he has got to say he will think him especially the with some phrase, which may poet of young men. Yet a rarer cheer, he hopes, the despondent and finer spell than that of the reader along. For instance, on lusty vitality of youth, or the page 136, a sentence runs : It is trained activity of manhood, is well to see if one can group facts exercised over the poet by the together. That is the first business beautiful repose

unsubdued of a man of science,” and there energy of old age.”

follows classification of the A few other writers are briefly behaviour of substances of diffenoticed, as being “indigenous rent specific gravity under the growths of the New World in

spectroscope. Does one not seem American literature. Among these to hear an acrobat or a rope we look in vain for the name of walker come forward on the boards Thoreau. Surely he too inay be

“ It is the business of an counted worthy to rank among acrobat to fly through the air,” the “indigenous growths or of a tight rope walker to walk American literature.”

on the tight rope, and then to pro

ceed to do so. Studies in Spectrum Analysis. Again, on page 139, the author By J. Norman Lockyer, F.R.S. probably thinks that a little talk Second edition. London: C. Kegan, about what he is talking about Paul, and Co. 1878.

will be of service, and so he This is in some respects a most introduces a theory with the infascinating, in others a most pro- teresting but somewhat puzzling voking, book. It is to be inferred dictum that he is afraid that not from the well-known name on the to say what he is going to say title page that the author can, when would be scientific cowardice. But he choses, express himself with the whenever the author does not try utmost lucidity ; and this is the to appeal to our somewhat wellcase during the first thirty or worn sense of what it is a scientific forty pages of the book-indeed, man's vocation to do, or suggest many pages can be regarded as such ideas as that there is a science models of scientific exposition, of running away as well as especially in the way in which it fighting, when he feels called is put in the reader's own power upon to really grapple with the to perform a simple experiment by difficulties of exposition, the rethe aid of a diagram (p. 13). sult is a conviction on the reader's

But afterwards, except when part that he is amongst most some point or difficulty seems to fascinating discoveries and imattract the author's attention, we measurable possibilities of future should imagine that it had been discoveries. And, indeed, although written to his dictation, when he the reader may not be able to



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