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thun, who prophesied with a ployed, in the same sense, in harp, to give praise to the Lord the Greek. And this expectaVer. 4. Of the sons of Heman, tion is heightened by the wellfourteen. Ver. 6. All these were known fact, that God did quaunder the hands of their father lify individuals, in the early for song in the house of the stage of the Christian church, Lord. Ver. 7. So the number to compose and 'sing hymns of them, with their brethren, that adapted to public worship. 1. were instructed in the songs of Cor. xiv. 26. “ How is it, brethe Lord, was two hundred and thren, when ye come together, eighty-eight.” The meaning of that every one of you hath a the term, in this full' and clear psalm, a doctrine, let all things passage, is beyond controversy be done to edifying.". To con If the same meaning be given clude this long induction of it in some other places, much proofs, let the 15th verse of the light will be thrown on the sa- xivth chapter of this epistle, be cred volume. I subjoin one or contrasted with the words under two examples: 1 Sam. x. v. discussion, “every woman pray“ After that, thou shalt come ing prophesying;" and," I to the hill of God, and thou will pray with the Spirit, and I

7 and shalt meet a company of pro- will sing with the Spirit.” phets (i. e. men divinely appoint- The meaning of the first part ed and qualified to conduct the of the text appears, then, to be praises of God) coming down this: "every woman praying or from the high place, with a singing with her head uncoverpsaltery, a tabret, and a pipe, ed, dishonoureth her head.”. and a harp, before them; and Having been so tedious in they shall prophesy. The Spi- examining - the import of this rit of the Lord will come upon first clause, I shall subjoin, in thee, and thou shalt prophesy a few words, what has carried with them.” Another example the greatest conviction, to my is taken from the contest be- own mind, on the last clause. tween Elijah and the prophets The apostle declarés, that the of Baal. 1 Kings, xviii. 26— head of every man is Christ, 30. “ They called on the name and the head of every woman of Baal from morning to noon, the man. The male, being first saying, O Baal, hear us! But created, was made in the image there was no voice, nor any of his Maker, and is, therefore, that answered. And they leap- the glory of his God. The feed upon the altar that was made. male, being next fashioned, They cried aloud, and cut them- sustains the same likeness, and selves. When mid-day was is, therefore, the glory of the past, and they prophesied until man. The man is not to cover the time of the evening sacri- his head in worship, because fice, there was neither voice, his head is pure, spotless, sinnor any that answered."

less. The woman is to cover - If such be the meaning of the her head, because her head has term in the Hebrew Scriptures, fallen and become depraved.: it may be expected to be em- Thus have I written freely



the result of my inquiries on for that he himself thought it this difficult text. And your would not. The legacy was, female readers may, perhaps, nevertheless, transferred to him, think that this result has been in conformity with the Will of communicated to confirm the the deceased. Some time afterdoctrine advanced in a late es- wards Mr. Booth went to the say on the silence of women in Bank of England, and, withthe church. Candour compels out saying any thing more upon me to give the above interpre- the subject to his friend, exetation of the passage : but truth cuted a transfer of the legacy to obliges me to enter my protest one nearly related to the family against the length to which your of the executrix, for whose unknown correspondent has benefit he relinquished it." carried his statements. Controversy is altogether un

IMMUTABILITY OF CHRIST pleasant to me. But I do think, that the doctrine of the essay, THE PRESERVATION OF HIS CHURCH in its full extent, is unsupported by scripture. It is built WHILE we would not unders chiefly on three passages of value the divine goodness in raisscripture, in all which the ing up instruments for the good ápostle has one object in view of his church, nor be insensible namely, public teaching. It is of their loss, the following exa this which is forbidden to the tract from Luther, as quoted by female. She is to engage in no Rutherford, in his book against such exercise as involves


Antinomianism, may communiriority. But I decline the dis-cate wholesome consolation to cussion in this paper, and shall the friends of Christ, under the communicate my thoughts on sorest bereavements which can that important and practical befall us : that eminent reformer subject in a subsequent essay, says, “ Alas, what are we, that should it remain unanswered. we should be conservators of

J. L.

the church? Our fathers could

not sustain this character, nor ANECDOTE OF MR. BOOTH.

can they that come

Thou and I were nothing a Some years before the death thousand years ago, when the of Mr. Booth, a particular church of God was preserved friend said to him, “I find, without us. He did it, who is Sir, that you have lost a valu-called, He that was, and who is able member of your church.” the same yesterday; nor can we Yes," he replied, “and she do it now. The church might has left me a legacy;" at the be ruined before

our eyes, same time adding, “There are were it not for Him who was, of her own family, who stand and who is the same to day: nor more in need of it than I do." can we do ought for the preHe then asked his friend servation of the church when, whether, under such circum- we are dead; but He will do it, stances, he thought it would who is called, He who is to come be right in him to receive it; and who is the same for ever."

fter us.



IN a popular periodical publi- of New England. These they cation for January, 1814, a writer consider to have been an ignorant, remarks, “ That the founders of factious, and fanatical set of men, American society brought, to the banished from England for crimes; composition of their nation, few while the transatlantic churches, seeds of good taste, and no rudi- established by the puritans, they ments of liberal science." This consider to have been a mere unfavourable opinion, concerning colluvies of error and superstition. our transatlantic brethren, may It is to be apprehended that there be thus accounted for. A num- are too many persons in Great ber of superficial travellers have Britain, who look on most of their lately visited the United States ; American brethren in the same and, on their return to England, light, even to this day. It is the they have given their crude jour- misfortune of Great Britain and nals to some mercenary scribbler. America, that they are not better A book is produced, wherein the acquainted with each other; and writer, indulging in a national that their liberality in subscribing propensity, draws a caricature, to pious institutions, is not seasonrather than a picture, of the man- ed with that charity, which thinkners of the Americans: the work eth no evil. is replete with falsehood and scan- It is not my intention to defend dal. The mercenary receives his the first settlers of New England, ill-gotten wages, and the expenses in that persecuting spirit, which of the traveller are reimbursed by disgraced too many of them; but, the sale of the book. Thus the with respect to their ignorance, credulity of the public is taxed, I apprehend the charge cannot to refund the expenses of some be made good against them. The superficial and splenetic traveller. first ninety - four ministers who If the people of the United States, crossed the Atlantic, and settled who are descended from England, in New England, chiefly before be really so contemptible as some the year 1640, were all educated late travellers describe, it follows, in the English universities, and that as an impure stream cannot were mostly ordained presbyters flow from a pure fountain, Eng- by the bishops in England. Of land must also be far gone in these, Hooker, Chauncey, Lee, depravity; an inference which, Davenport, &c. were well versed perhaps, they did not consider in theological literature, in the as naturally drawn from their own writings of the Greek and Latin premises.

churches, the councils, historians, In conformity to ideas thus and fathers. If they were such disingenuously imposed on them, ignorant fanatics, as they have some persons have been accustom- been represented, it may be asked, ed to entertain the most unfavour- why did the universities of Engable opinion of the first settlers land. confer degrees on them 3

why elect them as fellows of their haps, be found to have been the learned bodies? why did the learn- most intolerant. The English preed bishops of England ordain late expiated his offences with his them? how could they have ac-head; the presbyterians of Massaquired a knowledge of the difficult chussetts triumphed for a time, Indian languages, and have pub- but, by changing their appellation lished translations of the scripto congregationalists, they prove, tures in them? The charge suf- that they are ashamed of their ficiently refutes itself by its own persecuting and intolerant spirit. absurdity.

One of the most extraordinary With regard to their errors and men, who ever left England to fanaticism, it may be observed, settle in America, was Mr. Roger that if the first settlers of America Williams: this gentleman was were in an error, in refusing to born in Wales, A. D. 1599. Lord submit to the decisions of Arch- Chief Justice Coke saw him when bishop Laud, the people of Eng- very young at church, taking land erred not less; for they not notes; and finding them judicionly refused to submit to his ous, he patronized young Williams, arbitrary mandates, but brought and sent him to Oxford. Having him to the scaffold. Many of the finished his studies at the uniearly ministers of New England versity, he first became a minisresigned their fellowships and ter in the established church, and livings here, or were suspended subsequently joined the puritans. by Laud, for preaching accord-Soon after, the Laudian persecuing to the dictates of their con- tion forced him to quit his native sciences. They sought a sanc- country, when he fled to New tuary in the western wilderness; England. America is under great religion being their primary ob- obligations to this intemperate ject, they established civil govern- prelate, for, by his intolerant spirit, ment for the sake of religion. he peopled her wilderness with Their system of evangelical doc- some of the most learned and trines, the instituted ordinances, pious men, which England (magna and ecclesiastical polity, did not parens virúm ) has produced. vary much from the purity of the Arriving in New England ir apostolic ages; their preaching 1631, Mr. Williams settled in the of the word was attended with ministry at Salem, in the state of the best effects; baptism and the Massachussetts. He was by no Lord's supper were duly admi- means reserved in expressing his nistered. And if their history had opinions; his männer of delivery ended here, it might be truly was full of ardour and vehemence, said, that the puritans were a race while he openly and boldly deof men of whom the world was clared whatever appeared to him not worthy. But though they to be the truth : this undisguised fled from persecution themselves, frankness soon brought him into yet no sooner were they settled in difficulty. In 1635, he was sumAmerica, than they commenced moned before the general court, a system of persecution not less and was charged with maintaining culpable than that of Laud him- eighty-two erroneous opinions. If self. If a comparison should be a man has the misfortune to err op instituted between that prelate eighty-two points of his religion, and the presbyterians of Massa- a question arises, on what points chussetts-bay, the latter will, per- can he be expected to be orthoVOL. VII.

2 K

dox? Two of Mr. Williams's sup- tude of the desert, he founded the posed errors are these: 1st, “That first baptist church in America ; there ought to be an unlimited that church so distinguished by toleration of all religions. 2d, the number of men it has afforded That to punish a man, for follow- to the state, and to the cause of ing the dictates of his conscience, learning and religion ; that church, is persecution."

the singular character of which it Mr. Williams would not retract is, never to have disgraced itself his new and dangerous opinions, by persecution. Thus the stone, as the court was pleased to call which the builders rejected, has them, in consequence of which, become the head of the corner;" the sentence of banishment was It would be desirable to 'trace passed upon him. He took leave the origin of those principles which of his wife and children; his Mr. Williams advocated, but, at heart was wrung with the keenest this distance of time, we must be sensations of anguish, but he content with mere probabilities trusted in God. In the depth of and hypothetical induction. Drawa severe winter, when the ground | ing his first breath amidst the was covered with ice and snow, mountains of Wales, and receivhe was driven among the hostile ing his first impressions among a tribes of Indians, who inhabited people who were never subjected the borders of the Narranganset- to the Roman yoke, it was natural bay. A wilderness was before him, that he should be a lover of the intersected with broad and rapid pure principles of liberty. Mounrivers, a wilderness infested with tainous countries have ever been beasts of prey, and inhabited by considered as the peculiar abode men still more savage and danger- of freemen; thus the Cantons of ous. They who are acquainted Switzerland, among the Alps, not with the inclemency of a New less than Wales, have been supEngland winter, where the cold is posed to be the cradle of liberty. supposed to be not less intense His mind being well stored with than in Russia, will readily con- good learning at the University of ceive the hardships he must have Oxford, it was reasonable to supsuffered. Such was the extremity pose that his original principles of of his distress, that for fourteen religious and civil liberty would be weeks, as he himself observes, there improved and confirmed. “ he knew not what bread or bed That celebrated University, about did mean.” The savages, however, half a century afterwards, protreated him with respect and kind-duced the great Mr. Locke, the ness; they considered him as their champion of civil and religious father and instructor, and per- freedom. Whether the course of mitted him to settle among them. study, formerly presented by that Here Mr. Williams founded the University, was more than ordicolony of Rhode Island and Provi- narily favourable to the principles dence plantations, the government of toleration, I am not able to say; of which is characterized by allow- but Mr. Williams, Mr. Locke, and ing freedom of conscience to all. others, who have successfully adThis man, who was thus twice vocated the doctrine of liberty of driven into exile, has the honour conscience, having issued from of being the founder of the first that school, afford a sort of prefree government the world ever sumptive evidence in favour of knew. Here also, amidst the soli- the Oxford system of instruction.

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