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6. Eccl. ix. 50. The evidences of re- frailty, from inadvertency, or mistake pentance are, faith, humility, prayer, in matters of small consequence.-4. and obedience, Zech. xij. 10. The ne- We should never reprove unseasonably, cessity of repentance appears evident as to the time, the place, or the circumfrom the evil of sin; the misery it in- stances.-5. We should reprove mildly volves us in here, the commands given and sweetly, in the calmest manner, in us to repent in God's word; the pro- the gentlest terms.-6. We should not mises made to the penitent; and the ab- affect to be reprehensive: perhaps solute incapability of enjoying God here there is no one considered more trouor hereafter without it. See Dickin- blesome ihan he who delights in finding son's Letters, ict. 9; Dr. Owen on the fault with others. In receiving reproof 130th Psalm ; Gill's Body of Divi- | it may be observed, 1. That we should nity, article Repentance; Ridgley's Bo- not reject it merely because it may dy of Div. question 76; Davies's Ser- come from those who are not exactly mons, ser. 44. vol. iii ; Case's Sermons,

level with ourselves.-2. We ser. 4; Whitefield's Sermons; Saurin's should consider whether the reproof Scrmons, ser. 9. vol. iii. Robinson's given be not actually deserved ; and Translation; Scott's Treatise on Re: that, if the reprover knew all, whether pentance.

the reproof would not be sharper than REPROACH, the act of finding fault what it is.-3. Whether. iftaken humbly in opprobrious terms, or attempting to and patiently, it will not be of great adexpose to infamy and disgrace. In vantage to us.-4. That it is nothing whatever cause we engage, however but pride to suppose that we are never disinterested our motives, however lau- to be the subjects of reproof, since it is dable our designs, reproach is what we human to err. must expect. But it becomes us not to RESENTMENT, generally used in retaliate, but to bear it patiently; and an ill sense, implying a determination so to live, that every charge brought to return an injury. Dr. Johnson obagainst us be groundless. If we be re- serves, that resentment is an union of proached for righteousness' sake, we sorrow with malignity; a combination have no reason to be ashamed nor to be of a passion which all endeavour to afraid. All good men have thus suffer- avoid, with a passion which all concur ed, Jesus Christ himself especially. We to detest. The man who retires to mehave the greatest promises of support.ditate inischief, and to exasperate his Besides, it has a tendency to humble us, own rage, whose thoughts are employdetach us from the world, and exciteed only on means of distress and conin us a desire for that state of blessedness trivances of ruin, whose mind never where all reproach shall be done away. pauses from the remembrance of his

REPROBATION, the act of aban- own sufferings, but to indulge some hope doning, or state of being abandoned, toof enjoying the calamities of another, eternal destruction, and is applied to may justly be numbered among the most that decree or resolve which God has miserable of human beings; among taken from all eternity to punish sin- | those who are guilty ; who have neither ners who shall die in impenitence; in the gladness of prosperity, nor the calm which sense it is opposed to election. || of innocence. See ELECTION and PREDESTINATION. RESIGNATION, a submission with

REPROOF, blame or reprehension out discontent to the will of God. The spoken to a person's face." It is dis- obligations to this duty arise from, 1. tinguished from a reprimand thus. He The perfections of God, Deut. xxxii. 4. who reproves another, points out his-2. The purposes of God, Eph. i. 11. fault, and blames him. He who repri- -3. The commands of God, Heb. xii. mands, affects to punish, and mortifies 9.–4. The promises of God, 1 Pet. y. the offended. In giving reproof, the 7.-5. Our own interest, Hos. ii. 14, following rules may be observed: 1. We| 15.-6. The prospect of eternal felicity, should not be forward in reproving our

Heb. iv. 9. See articles AFFLICTION, elders or superiors, but rather to re- Despair, and PATIENCE; Worthingmonstrate and supplicate for redre-s. ton on Resignation ; Brooks's Müle What the ministers of God do in this Christian ; Grosvenor's Mourner; and kind, they do by special commission, as the books under AFFLICTION. those that must give an account, 1 Tim. RESTITUTION, the act of justice v. 1. Heb. xiii. 17.-2. We must not re- by which we restore to our neighbour prove rashly; there should be proof | whatever we have unjustly deprived before reproof.-3. We should not re- him of, Exod. xxii. 1. Luke, xix. 8. prove for slight matters, for such faults Moralists observe respecting restituor defects as proceed from gaturaltion, 1. That where it can be made in

ser, 7.

kind, or the injury can be certainly va- son on the Creed ; Lime Street Leci. lued, we are to restore the thing or the ser. 10; Watts's Ontology; Young'a value.--2. We are bound to restore the Last Day ; Locke on the Understandthing with the natural increase of it, ing, l. ii. C. 27; Warburlon's Legation that is, to satisfy for the loss sustained of Moses, vol. i. p. 553, &c. Bishop in the mean time, and the gain hinder- Newton's Works, vol. iii. p. 676, 683. ed.-3. Where the thing cannot be re- RESURRECTION OF CHRIST. stored, and the value of it is not certain, Few articles are more important than we are to give reasonable satisfaction, this. It deserves our particular ailesWe are at least to give by way of res- which Christianity turns. Hence, says titution what the law would give, for the apostle, he was delivered for our of that is generally equal, and in most fences, and raised again for our justificases rather favourable than rigorous, cation. Infidels, however, have disbe-j. A man is not only bound to restitu- | lieved it, but with what li tle reason we tion for the injury he did. but for all may easily see on considering the subthat directly follows upon the injurious ject. “ If the body of Jesus Christ,” act. For the first injury being wilful, says Saurin, “ were not raised from the we are supposed to will all that which dead, it must have been stolen away. follows upon it. Tillotson's Serm. ser. But this theft is incredible. Who com170, 171; Chillingworth's Works, mitted it? The enemies of Jesus Christ?

Would they have contributed to his RESURRECTION, a rising again glory by countenancing a report of his from the state of the dead; generally resurrection ? Would his disciples ? It applied to the resurrection of the last is probable they would not, and it is day. This doctrine is argued, 1. From next to certain they could not. How the resurrection of Christ, 1 Cor. XV.- could they have undertaken to remove 2. From the doctrines of grace, as union, || the body? Frail and timorous creatures, election, redemption, &c.-3. From people who fled as soon as they saw Scripture testimonies, Matt. xxii. 23, him taken into custody; even Peter, &c. Job, xix. 25, 27. Isaiah, xxvi. 19. the most courageous, trembled at the Phil. ii. 20. 1 Cor. xv. Dan. xii. 2. 1 voice of a servant girl, and three times Thess. iv. 14. Rev. xx. 13.-4. From denied that he knew him. People of the general judgment, which of course this character, would they have dared requires it. As to the nature of this re- to resist the authority of the governür? surrection, it will be, 1. General, Rev. | Would they have undertaken to oppose xx. 12. 15. 2 Cor. v. 10.-2. Of the the determination of the Sanhedrim, to same body. It is true. indeed, that the force a guard, and to elude, or overbody has not always the same particles, come, soldiers armed and aware of danwhich are continually changing, but it | ger? If Jesus Christ were not risen has always the same constituent parts, | again (I speak the language of unbewhich proves its identity; it is the lievers) he had deceived his disciples same body that is born that dies, and with vain hopes of his resurrection. the same that dies that shall rise again; || How came the disciples not to discover so that Mr. Locke's objection to the idea the imposture? Would they have haof the same body is a mere quibble.-3. zarded themselves by undertaking an The resurrection will be at the com- enterprise so perilous in favour of a man mand of Christ, and by his power, John, who had so cruelly imposed on their v. 28, 29.-4. Perhaps as to the manner credulity? But were we to grant that it will be successive; the dead in Christ they formed the design of removing the rising first, 1 Cor. xv. 23. i Thess. iv. body, how could they have executed it? 36. "This doctrine is of great use and How could soldiers armed, and on guard, importance. it is one of the first prin- suffer themselves to be over-reached ciples of the doctrine of Christ; the by a few timorous people? Eithet, says whole Gospel stands or falls with it. It St. Augustine, they were asleep of serves to enlarge our views of the di- awake : if they were awake, why should vine perfections. It encourages our they suffer the body to be takes away? faith and trust in God under all the dif- || If asleep, how could they know that the ficulties of life. It has a tendency to disciples took it away? How dare they regulate our affections and moderate then, depose that it wAS STOLEN?". our desires after earthly things. It sup- The testimony of the apostles furnishports the saints under the loss of near es us with arguments, and there are relations, and enables them to rejoice eight considerations which give the eviin the glorious prospect set before them. dence sufficient weight. 1. The nature See Hody on ihe Resurrection; Pear- of these witnesses. They were not men of power, riches, eloquence, credit, to cret of never contradicting themselves impose upon the world; they were or one another, and of being always unipoor and mean.--2. The number of form in their testimony. It must be these witnesses. See 1 Cor. xv. Luke. supposed that the most expert courts of xxiv. 34. Mark, xvi. 14. Mart. xxviii. judicature could not find out a shadow 10. It is not likely that a collusion of contradiction in a palpable imposture. should have been held among so many It must be supposed that the apostles, to support a lie, which would be of no sensible men in other cases, chose preutility to them.-3. The facts them- cisely those places and those times selves which they avow; not supposi- | which were most unfavourable to their tions, distant events, or events related views It must be supposed that milby others, but real facts which they | lions madly suffered imprisonments, torsaw with their own eyes, 1 John, i.-4. tures, and crucifixions to spread an ilThe agreement of their evidence: they lusion. It must be supposed that ten all deposed the same thing.-5. Observe thousand miracles were wrought in fathe tribunals before which they gave vour of falsehood, or all these facts evidence: Jews and heathens, philoso- | must be denied; and then it must be phers and rabbins, courtiers and law-supposed that the apostles were idiots ; yers. If they had been impostors, the that the enemies of Christianity were fraud certainly would have been dis- idiots; and that all the primitive Chriscovered.-6. The place in which they tians were idiots.” bore their testimony. Not at a distance, The doctrine of the resurrection of where they might not easily have been Christ affords us a variety of useful indetected, if false, but at Jerusalem, instructions. Here we see evidence of the synagogues, in the pretorium.-7. divine power; prophecy accomplished; The time of this testimony: not years the character of Jesus established; his after, but three days after, they de- work finished; and a future state proved. clared he was risen; yea, before their It is a ground of faith, the basis of rage was quelled, while Calvary was hope, a source of consolation, and a yet dyed with the blood they had spilt. stimulus to obedience. See Saurin's If it had been a fraud, it is not likely Sermons, ser. 8. vol. ij. Robinson's they would have come forward in such Translation; Ditton and West on the broad day-light, amidst so much oppo- Resurrection; Cook's Illusiration of sition.-8. Lastly, the motives which the general evidence establishing the induced them to publish the resur- reality of Christ's resurrection, p. 323, rection : not to gain fame, riches, glory, Ecc. Rev. vol. 4. but especially a small profit; no, they exposed themselves to but admirable Essay on the Resur. suffering and death, and proclaimed the rection of Christ. by Nir. Dore. truth from conviction of its importance RETIREMENT, the state of a perand certainty:

son who quits a public station in order “ Collect,' says Saurin, “ all these to be alone. Retirement is of great adproofs together; consider them in one vantage to a wise man. To him “the point of view, and see how many extra- hour of solitude is the hour of meditavagant suppositions must be advanced, tion. He communes with his own heart. if the resurrection of our Saviour be de- He reviews the actions of his past life. nied. It must be supposed that guards, He corrects what is amiss. "He rewho had been particularly cautioned by joices in what is right: and, wiser by their officers, sat down to sleep; and experience, lays the plan of his future that, however, they deserved credit | life. The great and the noble, the wise when they said the body of Jesus Christ and the learned, the pious and the was stolen. It must be supposed that | good, have been lovers of serious remen, who have been imposed on in the tirement. On this field the patriot most odious and cruel manner in the forms his schemes, the philosopher purworld, hazarded their dearest enjoy- | sues his discoveries, the saint improves ments for the glory of an impostor. It himself in wisdorn and goodness. Solimust be supposed that ignorant and il- | tude is the hallowed ground which reliliterate men, who had neither reputa- gion in every age has adopted as its own. tion, fortune, nor eloquence, possessed There her sacred inspiration is felt, and the art of fascinating the eyes of all the her holy mysteries elevate the soul; church. It must be supposed either || there devotion lifts up the voice ; there that five hundred persons were all de- falls the tear of contrition ; there the prived of their senses at a time, or that heart pours itself forth before him who They were all deceived in the plainest made, and him who redeemed it. Apart matters of fact; or that this multitude || from men, we live with nature, and conof false witnesses had found out the se- verse with God.Logan's Serinons, vol. n. ser. 2. Blair's Scrmons, ser. ix. vol.i., judgment, and affections of men. The
Bates's Rural Philosophy ; Brewster's Old Testament abounds with the
Recluse; Zimmerman on Sulitude. finest specimens of history, sublimity,

REVELATION, the act of reveal- ane interesting scenes of Providence.
ing or making a thing public that was The facts of the New Testament are
before unknown ; it is also used for the supported by undoubted evidence from
discoveries made by God to his pro- enemies and friends. The attestations
phets, and by them to the world ; and to the early existence of Christiani:y
more particularly for the books of the are numerous from Ignatius, Polycarp,
Old and New Testament. A revela- | Irenæus, Justin Martyr, and Tatian, who
tion is, in the first place, possible. God were Christians; and by Tacitus, Sue-
may, for any thing we can certainly ton, Serenus, Pliny, &c. who were
tell, think proper to make some dis- Heathens. (See CHRISTIANITY.]—7.
covery to his creatures which they knew The revelations contained in our Bible
not before. As he is a Being of infinite are divinely inspired. The matter, the
power, we may be assured he cannot be

manner, the scope, the predictions, mi-
at a loss for means to communicate his racles, preservation, &c. &c. all prove
will, and that in such a manner as will this. (See INSPIRATION.)-8. Revela-
sufficiently mark it his own.-2. It is tion is intended for universal benefit. It
desirable. For, whatever the light of is a common objection to it, that hither-
nature could do for man before reason to it has been confined to few, and
was deprared, it is evident that it has therefore could not come from God who
done little for man since. Though rea- is so benevolent; but this mode of ar-
son be nece-sary to examine the autho- | guing will equally hold good against the
rity of divine revelation, yet, in the permission of sin, the inequalities of
present state, it is incapable of giving Providence, the dreadful.evils and mi-
us proper discoveries of God, the way I series of mankind which God could
of salvation, or of bringing us into a have prevented. It must be farther ob-
state of communion with God, It served, that none deserve a revelation;
therefore follows,-3. That it is neccs- that men have despised and abused the
sary. Without it we can attain to no early revelations he gave to his people.
ceriain knowledge of God, of Christ, of | This revelation, we have reason to be-
the Holy Ghost, of pardon, of justifica- lieve, shall be made known to mankind.
tion, of sanctification, of happiness, of a Already it is spreading its genuine in-
future state of rewards and punish- fluence. In the cold regions of the
ments.-4. No revelation, as Mr. Brown north, in the burning regions of the
observes, relative to the redemption of south, the Bible begins to be known ;
mankind could answer its respective and, from the predictions it contains,
ends, unle s it were sufficiently marked we believe the glorious sun of revela-
with internal and external evidences. tion shall shine and illuminate the whole
That the Bible hath internal evidence, globe.-9. The effects of revelation
is evident from the ideas it gives us of which have already taken place in the
God's perfections, of the law of nature, world have been astonishing. In pro-
of redemption, of the state of man, &c. portion as the Bible has been known,
As to its external evidence, it is easily arts and sciences have been cultivated,
seen by the characters of the men who peace and liberty have been diffused,
composed it, the miracles wrought, its civil and moral obligation have been at:
success, the fulfilment of its predictions, tended to. Nations have emerged from
&c. (See Scripture.]-5. T'he contents ignorance and barbarity, whole com-
of revelation are agreeable to reason. It|munities have been morally reformed,
is true there are some things above the unnatural practices abolished, and wise
reach of reason; but a revelation con- laws instituted. Its spiritual effects
taining such things is no contradiction, have been wonderful. Kings and pea.
as long as it is not against reason ; for sants, conquerors and philosophers, the
if every thing be rejected which cannot wise and the ignorant, the rich and the
be exactly comprehended, we must be poor, have been brought to the foot of
come unbelievers at once of almost ihe cross; yea, millions have been en-
every thing around us. The doctrines, lightened, improved, reformed, and
the institutions, the threatenings, the made happy by its influences. Let any
precepts, the promises, of the Bible, are one deny this, and he must be an har-
every way reasonable.

The matier, dened, ignorant infidel, indeed. Great
form, and exhibition of revelation are is the truth, and must prevail. See
consonant with reason --6. The revela Dr. Lelund's Necessity of Revelation.
tion contained in our Bible is perfectly - This work,” says Mr. Ryland, "has
credible. It is an address to the reason, had no answer, and I am persuaded it

never will meet with a solid confuta- notes not only his absolute perfections, tion.”. Halyburton against the Deists ; but is taken for his perfect obedience Leland's View of Deistical Writers; to the law, and suffering the penalty Brown's Compendium of Natural and thereof in our stead. The righteousRevealed' Religion ; Stilling fleet's Ori- ness of the law is that obedience which gines Sacre, is, perhaps, one of the the law requires. The righteousness of ablest defences of revealed religion faith is the righteousness of Christ as ever written. Delany's Revelation er- received by faith. The saints have a amined with Candour;, Arch. Camp- threefold righteousness. 1. The righbell on Revelation; Ellis on Divine teousness of their persons, as in Christ, Things; Gale's Court of the Gentiles. his merit being iinputed to them, and

REVENGE means the return of in- | they accepted on the account thereof, jury for injury, or the infliction of pain | 2 Cor. v. 21. Eph. v. 27. Isaiah, xlv. on another in consequence of an injury | 24.–2. The righteousness of their prinreceived from him, farther than the ciples being derived from, and formed just ends of reparation or punishment according to the rule of right, Psalm require. Revenge differs materially | cxix. 11.-3. The righteousness of from resentment, which rises in the their lives, produced by the sanctifying mind immediately on being injured ; but influence of the Holy Spirit, without revenge is a cool and deliberate wicked- which no man shall see the Lord, Heb. ness, and is often executed years after xii. 14. 1 Cor. vi. 11. See IMPUTAthe offence is given. By some it is con- TION, JUSTIFICATION, SANCTIFICAsidered as a perversion of anger. Anger, | TION; Dickinson's Letters, let. 12; it is said is a passion given to man for Witherspoon's Essay on Imputed Righ. wise and proper purposes, but revenge teousness ; Hervey's Theron and Asis the corruption of anger ; is unnatural, trasio ; Dr. Owen on Justification ; and therefore ought to be suppressed. IVatts's Works, p. 532, vol. iii. oct. ed. It is observable that the proper object || Jenks on Submission to the Righteousof anger is vice; but the object in ge- ness of God. neral of revenge is man. It transfers the RIPE, a solemn act of religion ; an hatred due to the vice to the man, to external ceremony. (See CEREMONY.) whom it is not due. It is forbidden by || For the rites of the Jews, see Lowman's the Scriptures, and is unbecoming the Hebrew Ritual ; Spencer de Heb. Leg. character and spirit of a peaceful fol- Durell on the Mosaic Institution ; Bilower of Jesus Christ. See ANGER. shop Law's Theory of Religion, p. 89,

REVEREND, venerable ; deserving | 6th ed. Godwyn's Moses and Aaron; awe and respect. It is a title of respect Edwarıl's Survey, of, all Religions, given to ecclesiastics. The religious vol. i. ch. 9. Jenning's's Jewish Antiabroad are called reverend fathers, and quities. abbesses, prioresses, &c. reverend mo- RITUAL, a book directing the order thers. In England, bishops are right | and manner to be observed in performreverend, and archbishops most rever- ing divine service in a particular church, end; private clergymen, reverend. In | diocese, or the like. France, before the revolution, their bi- ROGEREENS, so called from John shops, archbishops, and abbots, were all || Rogers their chief leader. They apalike, most reverend. In Scotland, the peared in New England about 1677. clergy individually are, reverend; a The principal distinguishing tenet of synod is, very reverend ; and the gene- this denomination was, that worship ral assembly is, venerable. The Dis- performed the first day of the week senters, also, in England have the title was a species of idolatry which they of reverend; though some of them sup- ought to oppose. In consequence of pose the term implies too much to be this, they used a variety of measures to given to a mere creature, and that of disturb those who were assembled for God only it may be said with propriety; public worship on the Lord's day. “ Holy and reverend is his naine,

ROMISH CHURCH. See Church, Psalm cxi. 4.

and POPERI. REVERENCE, awful regard; an act ROSARY, a bunch or string of beads of obeisance; a submissive and humble on which the Roman Catholic3 count deportment. See Lord's NAME TAKEN their prayers, IN VAIN

ROSICRUCIANS, a name assumed RIGHTEOUSNESS, justice, holi- || by a sect or cabal of hiermetical philoness. The righteousness of God is the sophers, who arose, as it has been said, absolute and essential perfections of his or at least became first taken notice of, nature; sometimes it is put for his jus- || in Germany, in the beginning of the tice. The righteousness of Christ de- || fourteenth century. They bound them

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