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17 yards Adam Smith advantage agricultural amount assignats bank notes Bank of England bankers benefit bill bills of exchange book credits bullion capitalists cause cheaper cheapness cheques circulation circumstances coin commerce consumers corn cost of carriage cost of labour cost of production crease dealers debt depend depreciation diminished duction effect enable equal equivalent exchange value exist expense exports fall foreign commodities foreign countries France Germany gold and silver greater holders imports improvement increase international demand issue issuers labour and capital land law of value less loans lower means millions modities obtain paid paper currency payments permanent persons population portion precious metals produce proportion purchasing power quantity of money raise rate of interest rate of profit rent rise of prices seignorage sell speculation supply supposed supposition theory things tion trade transactions value of money whole yards of cloth yards of linen
Сторінка 330 - ... a well-paid and affluent body of labourers; no enormous fortunes, except what were earned and accumulated during a single lifetime; but a much larger body of persons than at present, not only exempt from the coarser toils, but with sufficient leisure, both physical and mental, from mechanical details, to cultivate freely the graces of life, and afford examples of them to the classes less favourably circumstanced for their growth.
Сторінка 185 - Gold and silver having been chosen for the general medium of circulation, they are, by the competition of commerce, distributed in such proportions amongst the different countries of the world, as to accommodate themselves to the natural traffic which would take place if no such metals existed, and the trade between countries were purely a trade of barter.
Сторінка 331 - There is room iu the world, no doubt, and even in old countries, for a great increase of population, supposing the arts of life to go on improving, and capital to increase. But even if innocuous, I confess I see very little reason for desiring it.
Сторінка 404 - They grow richer, as it were in their sleep, without working, risking, or economizing. What claim have they, on the general principle of social justice, to this accession of riches...
Сторінка 563 - Laisserfaire, in short, should be the general practice : every departure from it, unless required by some great good, is a certain evil.
Сторінка 387 - Thirdly, by the forfeitures and other penalties which those unfortunate individuals incur who attempt unsuccessfully to evade the tax, it may frequently ruin them, and thereby put an end to the benefit which the community might have derived from the employment of their capitals. An injudicious tax offers a great temptation to smuggling. Fourthly, by subjecting the people to the frequent visits and the odious examination of the tax-gatherers, it may expose them to much unnecessary trouble, vexation,...
Сторінка 387 - Every tax ought to be so contrived as both to take out and to keep out of the pockets of the people as little as possible over and above what it brings into the public treasury of the state. A tax may either take out or keep out of the pockets of the people a great deal more than it brings into the public treasury...
Сторінка 386 - The subjects of every state ought to contribute towards the support of the government, as nearly as possible, in proportion to their respective abilities; that is, in proportion to the revenue which they respectively enjoy under the protection of the state.
Сторінка 386 - The tax which each individual is bound to pay ought to be certain and not arbitrary. The time of payment, the manner of payment, the quantity to be paid, ought all to be clear and plain to the contributor and to every other person.