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to live, is the club which compels him to sell his strength to

those who utilize it for their own ends. Thus he has performed the function of the bee that labors ceaselessly only to have

1 all taken from it except what will keep it ülive.

Their conviction on this point is strengthened by the

many living-wage investigations made recently before framers

of awards hand down their decisions. They ask themselves, "Why should decisions be based upon the bare

upon the bare cost of necessi

ties? Why has the working class never received anything more

than a bare living for its services?

If we are to get only a

living wage, why be in haste to increase production? Why not

2 change the profit system first?"

Industrial unions, with the possible exception of the United Mine workers and the Auto Workers, also accept the

Marxian doctrine of an inevitable Class Struggle between Labor

and Capital.

"Modern industrial society." says the One Big Union of

Canada, "is divided into two classes, those who possess and do

not produce, and those who produce and do not possess.... From


this fact arises the inevitable class struggle.

The Amalgamated Clothing Workers and the Analgamatea

Textile Workers agree on this declaration: "The economic organ

ization of Labor has been called into existence by the capital

ist system of production, under vhich the division between the

ruling class and the ruled class is based upon the ownership

of the means of production.

The class owning those means is

1. Industrial Union News, Jan. 31, 1920.
2. Ibid, June 14, 1919.
3. Constitution, Preamble.

the one that is ruling, the class that possesses nothing but

its labor power, which is always on the market as a commodity, is the one that is being ruled. A constant and unceasing struggle is being waged between these two classes.nl

The Ladies' Garment Workers assert, "That the only way

to secure our rights as producers and to bring about a system

of society wherein the workers shall receive the full value of

their product, is to organize industrially into a class-con

scious labor union politically represented on the various legislative bodies by representatives of a political party

,2 whose aim is the abolition of the capitalist system......

The Hotel Workers' Federation comes to this conclu

sion; "The workers must organize and combine industrially on the principle of the Class Struggle.


Their object is "the complete Emancipation of Labor."

The Brewery Workers begin their constitution with this

assertion: "In our society of today there are two classes

vhose interests are directly opposed to each other...... The self-conscious power of capital, with all its camp-followers,

is confronted with the self-conscious power of labor. There

is no power on earth strong enough to thwart the will of such

a majority conscious of itself. It will irresistibly tend

4 toward its goal. This goal is "the emancipation of the

working people."

1. Constitutions of both Amalgamated clothing Workers and

Amalgamated Textile Workers, Preamble of each. 2. Constitution of Ladies' Garment Workers, Preamble. 3. Constitution of International Federation of Workers in

the Hotel, Restaurant, Lunchroom, Club and Catering Industry,

Preamble. 4. Constitution of United Brewery & Soft Drink Workers, 13-4.

Both the I. W. W. and the W. I. I. U. begin their con

stitutions with the statement: "The working class and the em

ploying class have nothing in common.

Between these two

classes a struggle must go on....'

until capitalism is


The I. W. W. "defy the learned doctors of decorated

persiflage to enter any Wobbly sanctum sanctorum and there

1 not find a student of Marx. "

In a pamphlet of the W. I. I. U. intended to impress

upon working men the idea that the proletariat has a "historic mission" to fulfill, the author says: "....History... becomes a vital, interesting narrative, depicting the unceasing strug

gle of the classes through the ages; a struggle that finds its

culmination in the furious class war raging between Capital

and Labor today, and that will be definitely concluded with

the abolition of class prerogatives in property and the establishment of the Industrial Republic."

Such a goal, the W. I. I. v. believes, not only voices the specific class interests of the proletariat, but is also

in accord with the tendencies and dictates of social evolution.

"The working class, as an agent of social evolution, and the

capitalist class, as an obstacle in the path of economic pro

gress have, therefore, nothing in common.

This fundamental

difference of interests, functions, and historic destinies breeds the class antagonism and the struggle for power.


The original division of society into classes was a necessary evil because of the slight development of man's

1. The One Big Union Monthly, July, 1919,

, , p. 49. 2. Karl Dannenberg, "The Road to Power." 4. 3. Ibid, 7-8.

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