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recently entered into a contract with the Cleveland Garment Manufacturers' Association whereby each party assumed half of the expense of employing a New York firm of industrial engineers to make a survey of the industry. The engineers are instructed to rearrange the wage scale on a basis of a protected yearly income, to introduce economical methods of operation, and to devise a plan for joint managerial and union control of standards of production. If union representatives and those of the manufacturers fail to agree on

the methods submitted by the engineers, the dispute will be

left to referees. Union leadership thus endorses "scientific management", and has deliberately set out to increase production. "Joint control of production standards," says Meyer Perlstein, vice-president of the International "is what will make it possible for the union to accept a graduated scale based on production...... Joint control within the plant and joint supervision of the time tests and the application of the engineers' findings will prevent speeding up." This is a most unusual contract, the first of

its kind.

All three of the unions under consideration take an active interest in the education of their members in

order to prepare them to assume control of their respec

tive industries. "For the consumnation of this great end,"

1. John . Love, "Teamwork in Cleveland's Gurment Industry,"

Survey, April 3, 1920. 2. Ibid.

the Amalgamated Textile Workers declare, "the education of the

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working class is most essential. This must, therefore, be a very important part of the mission of the Labor Movement." The constitutions of both the Textile workers and the Amalgamated Clothing Workers require each local union to hold lectures and to do all in its power to strengthen and promote the labor movement. The section is almost identical with that in the constitution of the Ladies' Garment Workers, which reads as

follows:

"Each Local Union shall maintain a labor bureau and business agents, either individually or in connection with some other Local Union, and shall conduct a library and reading room and lecture courses for the enlightenment of its members, and shall join central labor unions and maintain friendly relations with other organizations and do all in its power to strengthen

and promote the labor movement.""

In compliance with this section, the Ladies' Garment Workers in New York conduct courses in the labor movement, and trade unionism, English, art, music, gymnastics, psychology, American history and civics, modern European history, economics of the industrial system, etc.

The Ladies' Garment Workers are affiliated with the A. F. of L., while the Amalgamated Clothing workers and the Amalgamated Textile Workers are "outlaw" organizations, opposed by rival á. F. of 1. unions, namely, The United Garment

1. Constitution of Amalgamated Textile forkers, Preamble. 2. Constitution of I.L.G.W.U., Article VI, Sec.5. 3. The Milwaukee Leader. April 26, 1919.

Workers and the United Textile workers. The latter are industrial

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unions, in that each aims to include in the general organization

all workers in its respective industry. Therefore, this discussion would not be complete without contrasting briefly the orth

odox unions and the seceding unions.

Taking the two textile unions first, we find that the United Textile Workers organize locally by craft. Their constitution contains this clause:

"In places where there are unions of the different

crafts in the trade, no textile workers will be allowed to join any union outside of his or her own craft, if there is a union of their craft in the place."

These craft unions may form a District Council", but they are not welded firmly together, obedient to a single local authority, as are the local unions of the Amalgamated Textile Workers under their Joint Board, which compels local solidarity of all workers in the textile industry. Any local craft union may strike without consulting other local unions, although it must have permission from the International, which may, if it thinks best, call out all operatives in the mill or corporation where such strike is ordered. The United Textile workers do not have any shop organization, while the salgamated, on the other hand, say, "The only form of unionism that will serve today is one that follows the lines of the industries, organizing

1. Constitution and By-Laws of United Textile workers of America,

Article XVI, Sec. 1. 2. Constitution and By-Laws for the Government of Local Unions of

the United Textile Workers of America, Rule XX, Sec. 4. 3. Constitution and By-Laws of United Textile Workers of America,

Article XIII.

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