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to live, is the club which compels him to sell his strength to
those who utilize it for their own ends. Thus he has performed the function of the bee that labors ceaselessly only to have
1 all taken from it except what will keep it ülive.
Their conviction on this point is strengthened by the
many living-wage investigations made recently before framers
of awards hand down their decisions. They ask themselves, "Why should decisions be based upon the bare
upon the bare cost of necessi
ties? Why has the working class never received anything more
than a bare living for its services?
If we are to get only a
living wage, why be in haste to increase production? Why not
2 change the profit system first?"
Industrial unions, with the possible exception of the United Mine workers and the Auto Workers, also accept the
Marxian doctrine of an inevitable Class Struggle between Labor
"Modern industrial society." says the One Big Union of
Canada, "is divided into two classes, those who possess and do
not produce, and those who produce and do not possess.... From
this fact arises the inevitable class struggle.
The Amalgamated Clothing Workers and the Analgamatea
Textile Workers agree on this declaration: "The economic organ
ization of Labor has been called into existence by the capital
ist system of production, under vhich the division between the
ruling class and the ruled class is based upon the ownership
of the means of production.
The class owning those means is
1. Industrial Union News, Jan. 31, 1920.
the one that is ruling, the class that possesses nothing but
its labor power, which is always on the market as a commodity, is the one that is being ruled. A constant and unceasing struggle is being waged between these two classes.nl
The Ladies' Garment Workers assert, "That the only way
to secure our rights as producers and to bring about a system
of society wherein the workers shall receive the full value of
their product, is to organize industrially into a class-con
scious labor union politically represented on the various legislative bodies by representatives of a political party
,2 whose aim is the abolition of the capitalist system......
The Hotel Workers' Federation comes to this conclu
sion; "The workers must organize and combine industrially on the principle of the Class Struggle.
Their object is "the complete Emancipation of Labor."
The Brewery Workers begin their constitution with this
assertion: "In our society of today there are two classes
vhose interests are directly opposed to each other...... The self-conscious power of capital, with all its camp-followers,
is confronted with the self-conscious power of labor. There
is no power on earth strong enough to thwart the will of such
a majority conscious of itself. It will irresistibly tend
4 toward its goal. This goal is "the emancipation of the
1. Constitutions of both Amalgamated clothing Workers and
Amalgamated Textile Workers, Preamble of each. 2. Constitution of Ladies' Garment Workers, Preamble. 3. Constitution of International Federation of Workers in
the Hotel, Restaurant, Lunchroom, Club and Catering Industry,
Preamble. 4. Constitution of United Brewery & Soft Drink Workers, 13-4.
Both the I. W. W. and the W. I. I. U. begin their con
stitutions with the statement: "The working class and the em
ploying class have nothing in common.
Between these two
classes a struggle must go on....'
until capitalism is
The I. W. W. "defy the learned doctors of decorated
persiflage to enter any Wobbly sanctum sanctorum and there
1 not find a student of Marx. "
In a pamphlet of the W. I. I. U. intended to impress
upon working men the idea that the proletariat has a "historic mission" to fulfill, the author says: "....History... becomes a vital, interesting narrative, depicting the unceasing strug
gle of the classes through the ages; a struggle that finds its
culmination in the furious class war raging between Capital
and Labor today, and that will be definitely concluded with
the abolition of class prerogatives in property and the establishment of the Industrial Republic."
Such a goal, the W. I. I. v. believes, not only voices the specific class interests of the proletariat, but is also
in accord with the tendencies and dictates of social evolution.
"The working class, as an agent of social evolution, and the
capitalist class, as an obstacle in the path of economic pro
gress have, therefore, nothing in common.
difference of interests, functions, and historic destinies breeds the class antagonism and the struggle for power.
The original division of society into classes was a necessary evil because of the slight development of man's
1. The One Big Union Monthly, July, 1919,
, , p. 49. 2. Karl Dannenberg, "The Road to Power." 4. 3. Ibid, 7-8.