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The Ladies' Garment Workers have a still more complicated

way of organizing for local solidarity.

They are organized in

to local unions according to the "branch of the ladies' garment industry", or "branch of the trade", in which they are employed,

with the following provision:

"À charter shall not be granted to a Local Union of a

branch of the trade of which there is another Local Union in

existence in the same city or locality, except with the consent of such existing Local Union.

1

In New York City there are at the present time twentyfive locals, a among which occur such titles as the following: Ladies' Waist and Dressmakers' Union, Cutters' Union, Buttonhole Makers' and Button Sewers' Union, Bonnaz, Sing er and

Hand Embroiderers' Union, Skirt and Cloth Dressmakers' Union,

etc.

For the sake of industrial solidarity, the constitu

tion provides as follows:

"Two or more local unions located

in the Sune city or locality and engaged in various branches

of the same trade, shall organize a Joint Board."

All the

local unions in the cloak, suit, and skirt trade, for example,

must form a Joint Board, to which each union sends an equal

number of delegates.

Similarly, local unions in the dress

and waistmaking trade form a Joint Board.

The Joint Board

1. Constitution, Article VI.
2. Private letter from General Secretary's office.

has authority to call and conduct strikes, subject to endorse

ment by the General Executive Board.

This rules out craft di

vision and insures that in each branch of the industry there

is local solidarity.

The constitution provides further that all of the lo

cal unions in any one city or locality, irrespective of the

träde to which they belong, shall organize a District Council, which shall consist of an equal number of delegates from each

local union.

The council has nothing to do with strikes,

Its

business is to organize all of the various branches of the

ladies' garment industry in its locality and agitate for the

union label.

It decides all controversies between local un

ions or between a local union and a member.

It muy censure,

fine, suspend, or expel u local union which fails to act ac

cording to the general constitution. All its decisions are binding unless reversed by the General Executive Board.

In the Amalgamated Textile Workers, the Amalgamated

Clothing Workers, and the Ladies' Garment Workers the allo

cation of power between the General Executive Board and the

local authority is shown by their method of settling diffi

culties and conducting strikes. In the case of the Textile Workers, when any difficulties with employers arise, the of

ficers of the Joint Board investigate the trouble immediate

ly and try to adjust the difference.

If they fail to settle

the trouble, they deliberate whether to call a strike.

They

must imediately notify the General Office and consult it in

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