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None of the three has officially any political affiliations; two, however, advocate political as well as industrial

organization of the working class, and the third (the Amal

gamated clothing Workers) permits the discussion of politics

in union meetings.

Their philosophy is milder than that of the W. I. I. U.

and different in some respects, and it is radically different

from that of the I. W. W.

Nevertheless, the General Secre

tary of the Amalgamated Clothing Workers was arraigned by

their deadly enemy, the United Garment Workers, on the charge

that he had been a member of the Socialist Labor Party for

1 twenty-five years,

that he had been a staunch supporter of

the I. W. W. during the first two years of its existence, and

was,

so they asserted, "always on hand to help Mr. Daniel

De Leon.in all of his attempts to disrupt the trade union

movement..2

Be that as it may, the structure and tactics of the

three organizations under consideration show how the mili

tant class-conscious philosophy of revolutionary industrial

unionism expresses itself in action.

hese unions show how

an industry organizes to fight employers. They are not a

matter of speculation regarding a future Industrial Republic.

In them we observe how industrial unions actually conduct

themselves under the present capitalistic regime.

1. He was expelled from the Socialist Labor Party į few years

ago, the General Secretary of the W. I. I. U. states. 2. Proceedings of the Nineteenth Convention, United Garment

workers of America (October 14-16, 19187, 47-48.

A convention, biennial in the case of the Ladies'

Garment Workers and the Amalgamated clothing Workers, an

1 nual in that of the Amalgamated Textile Workers, is in

each case the supreme legislative body. In the two latter organizations, on motion of five local unions, no two of

which shall be of the same state or province, a special

session may be called by general vote, a two-thirds major

ity to decide.

The Ladies' Garment Workers require only the

written request of five local unions, no two of which shall

be located in any one city, in order to call a special convention. The Amalgamated Textile Workers show a distrust

of officials by providing that no local shall send to the

convention more than one delegate who is a paid official

either of a local union or the national office.

When the

convention is not in session, its powers are vested in the

General Executive Board.

The General Executive Board, whose membership ranges

in number from eleven to fifteen, is, in the Ladies' Gar

ment Workers, elected by the convention; in the two Amal

gamated unions, it is nominated by the convention and

elected by referendum of the general membership. It decides

all points of law arising under the organization and all

claims, grievances, and appeals from the decisions of af

filiated organizations, and its decision is binding until

1. Discussion of structure of the three unions is based on

their respective constitutions.

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