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None of the three has officially any political affiliations; two, however, advocate political as well as industrial
organization of the working class, and the third (the Amal
gamated clothing Workers) permits the discussion of politics
in union meetings.
Their philosophy is milder than that of the W. I. I. U.
and different in some respects, and it is radically different
from that of the I. W. W.
Nevertheless, the General Secre
tary of the Amalgamated Clothing Workers was arraigned by
their deadly enemy, the United Garment Workers, on the charge
that he had been a member of the Socialist Labor Party for
1 twenty-five years,
that he had been a staunch supporter of
the I. W. W. during the first two years of its existence, and
so they asserted, "always on hand to help Mr. Daniel
De Leon.in all of his attempts to disrupt the trade union
Be that as it may, the structure and tactics of the
three organizations under consideration show how the mili
tant class-conscious philosophy of revolutionary industrial
unionism expresses itself in action.
hese unions show how
an industry organizes to fight employers. They are not a
matter of speculation regarding a future Industrial Republic.
In them we observe how industrial unions actually conduct
themselves under the present capitalistic regime.
1. He was expelled from the Socialist Labor Party į few years
ago, the General Secretary of the W. I. I. U. states. 2. Proceedings of the Nineteenth Convention, United Garment
workers of America (October 14-16, 19187, 47-48.
A convention, biennial in the case of the Ladies'
Garment Workers and the Amalgamated clothing Workers, an
1 nual in that of the Amalgamated Textile Workers, is in
each case the supreme legislative body. In the two latter organizations, on motion of five local unions, no two of
which shall be of the same state or province, a special
session may be called by general vote, a two-thirds major
ity to decide.
The Ladies' Garment Workers require only the
written request of five local unions, no two of which shall
be located in any one city, in order to call a special convention. The Amalgamated Textile Workers show a distrust
of officials by providing that no local shall send to the
convention more than one delegate who is a paid official
either of a local union or the national office.
convention is not in session, its powers are vested in the
General Executive Board.
The General Executive Board, whose membership ranges
in number from eleven to fifteen, is, in the Ladies' Gar
ment Workers, elected by the convention; in the two Amal
gamated unions, it is nominated by the convention and
elected by referendum of the general membership. It decides
all points of law arising under the organization and all
claims, grievances, and appeals from the decisions of af
filiated organizations, and its decision is binding until
1. Discussion of structure of the three unions is based on
their respective constitutions.