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required to maintain communication between the district and

general headquarters.

National Industrial Unions "of closely kindred in

dustries"

are united in a Department of Industry, as, for

example, the Department of Mining or the Department of Trans

portation and Communication.

On paper there are six of these

Departments. The six departments are organized to form the Workers' International Industrial Union.

Authority over the whole organization is centralized,

at the same time that there are elaborate provisions for mak

ing the executives responsive to the will of the general mem

bership.

The annual convention "is the supreme legislative

body of the organization, and its actions and enactments are

of legal force unless reversed upon a referendum vote by the whole membership.

,,2

Between conventions the supreme author

ity is the General Executive Board (G. E. B.), which is elec

ted annually by referendum vote from a list of candidates

nominated by the convention.

"The decisions of the General

Executive Board on all matters pertaining to the organiza

tion or any subordinate part thereof shall be binding, sub

ject to an appeal to the next convention or to the entire

3 membership. The G. E. B. has full power to call out any

other union or unions in support of a strike regularly

1. Constitution of W. I. I. U. 2. Ibid. 3. Ibid.

ordereå by the Organization or G. E. B., or in case of a lock

out.

"any agreement entered into between the members of any

Local Union, or organization, and their employers, as a final

settlement of any difficulty or trouble which may occur be

tween them, shall not be considered valid or binding until the

agreement shall have the approval of the General Executive

Board of The Workers' International Industrial Union.

A local

union shall be entitled to assistance from the general organ

ization in case of strike only when the general organization

,,1 has allowed or endorsed the strike question. Such is the

authority of the General Executive Board, the embryo Economic

[blocks in formation]

The unit of Congressional representation is politically geographic, either a state or a geographic area within the state. Senators are elected from Wisconsin, Representatives from the

Third and Fifth Congressional Districts, etc. But under a purely industrial representation, arbitrary geographic boundaries will be wiped out. There will be no state of Wisconsin,

no Maine or Mississippi.

All the forty-eight states will dis

appear.

"Like the flimsy cardhouses that children raise, "

said De Leon, "the present political governments of countfies,

of States, aye, of the city on the Potomac herself, will

tumble down, their places taken by the central and the sub

ordinate administrative organs of the Nation's industrial

forces.12

1. Ibid.

Hannnatruction of Society 11 38-39.

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