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Enginemen's Association says: "This walkout is a protest against

the dilatory tactics of the officers of the brotherhoods.....

Their leaders have been playing politics with the federal ad

ministration, and the watchword has been, 'To hell with the rank and file'. Now it's 'To hell with the Grand Lodge.'


Perhaps the prediction of De Leon is coming true; "I venture

the statement, on this 10th day of July, 1905, that the day is nigh when the Working Class of America will courtmartial

the Gomperses, the Mitchells, the Stoneses, whose generalship is sacrificing the army of Labor - courtmartial them for

2 treason to the Working Class.


When the working class unite", said Debs, "there will

be a lot of jobless labor leaders.

In many of these craft

unions...... the rank and file do not count for any more than

if they were so many sheep. In the railroad organizations, for instance, if the whole membership vote to go out on strike, they cannot budge without the official sanction of

the Grand Chief.

His word outweighs that of the entire



Moreover, in many industries, the craft union mem

bership constitutes only an aristocracy of labor, mude up

of skilled workmen who are a smull minority in the industry.

Experience showed, for example, that if cooks went out on

strike, the unskilled workers, the pot-washer, dish-washer,

pantry-man, etc., were pressed into service until "scabs"

1. Ibid, apr. 8, 1920 2. Daniel De Leon, "Socialist Reconstruction of society," 26. 3. Eugene V. Debs, "Industrial Unionism, 13.

were got to take the place of strikers, or hundreds of bus

boys would take the places of striking waiters.

To put it briefly, the "tragedy of craft sovereigntynı

is that "trade unions foster a state of affairs which allows

one set of workers to be pitted against another set of work

ers in the same industry, thereby helping defeat one another

2 in wage wars.

Such a state of affairs may be brought about

by contracts with various crufts in the same industry being

made to expire on different dates.

Or modern machinery and

acute specialization may break down craft barriers until the

skilled workers in an industry can be used to replace skilled

workers on strike.

As if these defects were not enough,

craft unions have been rendered still more inefficient be

cause their officials are not subject to direct control by

the general membership, and are frequently accused of car:

ing more for their salaries and jobs than they do for the

[blocks in formation]

in structure and purpose in order to make it an efficient

instrument of industrial warfare.

The complex and highly


1. Daniel De Leon, "Industrial Unionism", 2. Constitution of W. I. I. U., Preamble.

centralized form of modern production necessitates the Indus

trial Union, whose object is to organize the workers into

units corresponding to the industries in which they work, with

the idea of solidarity.

But before discussing the Industrial Union, it is nec

essary to complete De Leon's analysis of the situation by pre

senting his conception of the State.

"Capitalism is the last expression of Class Rule,"

said De Leon.

"The economic foundation of Class Rule is the

private ownership of the necessaries for production.

The SO

cial structure, or garb, of Class Rule is the Political State

that social structure in which government is an organ sep

arate and apart from production, with no vital function other than the maintenance of the supremacy of the ruling class.


Capitalism has created two entirely separate and dis

tinct structures to execute its will, one the economic struc

ture for conducting industry, the other the social structure

for maintaining the supremacy of the capitalist class by


The social structure, the State, uses physical force

to attain its ends. The state is the governmental administration of capitalism, its organized power, which it uses to

2 keep the working class in subjection. Thus the capitalist

class dominates the working class by a dual despotism, on the

one hand economic despotism, on the other political despo


Capitalists use the movernment, and are under the

necessity of owning the government in order to enable it to

3 uphold the capitalist system.

1. Daniel De Leon, "Industrial Unionism, 1. 2. Daniel De Leon, "Socialist reconstruction of Society," 36. 3. Daniel De Leon, "What Means This Strike?" 24.

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