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control over nature. The W. I. I. v. admits, for instance, that the immense contributions of classic Greece to the mental progress of mankind in science, art, and philosophy were made possible only through chattel slavery. Leisure for some was required for a study of natural laws, in order to improve man's productive powers. But with the present development of science, Class Rule has ceased to have the least excuse for existence and must be once for all supplanted by industrial democracy. Thus the W. I. I. U. is opposed to Nietzsche, who regarded slavery as eternally proper for the masses of mankind.

Accepting the doctrine of the class struggle leads in

evitably to class-consciousness. From the quotations given above to prove that, as a rule, industrial unions accept the class struggle, it should be evident that what they mean by class-consciousness is the recognition of a two-class alignment, on the one hand the employing class, on the other the entire working class. This is a horizontal division of the population, fixing a definite social status. It excludes all occupational or trade consciousness of the kind found in the craft union. It is not trade consciousness but


Previous struggles have eliminated all other classes.

So this is the last of the class struggles.

Industrial unionism may be resorted to solely in order to increase fighting efficiency, an object on which all industrial unions agree, or with the further purpose of some day operating the industry. Those unions which are avowedly "vitalized by the dynamic forces of class consciousness,'t


1. Karl Dannenberg, "The Road to Power, " 25.

as they themselves express it, are organizing to take possession

of the industry.

The Amalgamated Clothing Workers and the Amalgamated Textile Workers, for instance, have these statements in the Preamble to their constitutions: "The same faces that have been making for Industrial Unionism are likewise making for a closer inter-industrial alliance of the working class. The industrial and inter-industrial organization, built upon the solid rock of clear knowledge and class-consciousness, will put the organized working class in actual control of the system of production, and the working class will then be ready

Do prod by man y to take possession of it.

The I. W. W. has a similar goal in view, as is set forth in the preamble of their constitution: "The army of production must be organized, not only for the everyday struggle with capitalists, but also to carry on production when capitalism shall have been overthrown. By organizing industrially we are forming the structure of the new society within the shell of the old."

All industrial unions which accept the doctrine of

the class struggle are organizing to take possession of the industry. In other words, the industrial union is the

class struggle organized in the industries.

Craft unions are dissolving and industrial unions of new and varied types are crystallizing. It is an intricate and fascinating process to observe.



1. The United Brewery and soft Drink Workers may be an

exception. They adhere to the Socialist Party.

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