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before they are submitted to the proprietors. I
Executive Board has authority to make such changes as it deems
advisable before such contracts are endorsed.
It is the duty
of the Joint Local Executive Board to take care that the con
tracts of the various branches of an industry shall be pre
sented to the employers for their signature in each industry
2 at the same time.
It is obligatory upon all unions to insert the arbi
3 tration clause in all contracts. Strikes are avoided as
4 much as possible.
If difficulties with employers cannot be adjusted by
the local union, they must be reported to the Joint Local Ex
If the Joint Local Executive Board fails to
adjust the matters in dispute, it must report the case to the
General sxecutive Board, which has full power to authorize
5 strikes or to terminate a strike, if deemed advisable. The
constitution contains this provision; "Local unions declar
ing a strike without the consent of the General Executive
Board can expect no support from the International Union.
Furthermore, "It is mandatory that, after tlie consent of the
General Executive Board for a strike has been obtained,
question be considered whether or not a strike shall be in
augurated, and à vote must be taken by ballot on the subject,
and it shall require a two-thirds majority of all members of
1. Ibid, 26. 2. Ibid. 31. 3. Ibid, 26. 4. Ibid, 45. 5. Ibid, 34. 6. Ibid, 46.
all local unions that will be involved in the strike to make
a strike legal..7
A general referendum vote may be ordered in any one
of three ways: (1) By a majority of delegates at the conven
tion, (2) By three-fourths of the members of the General Executive Boara, (3) Upon demand of a local union, provided such demand is supported by one-fourth of all local unions.
The Brewery workers are frankly class-conscious, and
revolutionary in spirit. Organized labor, they believe, will
finally succeed "in introducing a condition of things in which
each shall enjoy the full product of his toil.
that the working class may "emancipate" itself, not only is
industrial organization necessary, but also "education and enlightenment, by word and pen" and "active participation in the political labor movement of the country, on independent labor class lines."4 Such independent politics of the work
ing class is represented, they say, in all modern countries
5 by the Socialist parties. "Therefore every honest union
man, if he understands his interests and the interests of his class,.. must be a Socialist. -6 the officers of the
orgunization," we are told, "never failed to impress the
members with the fact that it was their duty to join the
Socialist movement, to vote the Socialist ticket, and to learn to understand socialism.
1. Ibid. 47.
5. Hernan Schluter, The Brewing Industry
and the Brewery workers' Movement in
America, 244 .
The Trend of the Movement
This study of industrial unionism has been confined to
the United States, although the idea has been spreading faster abroad. In the United States and Cunada it is spreading with
great rapidity. The W. I. I. U., dating back to 1905, has only about
1 5,000 inembers enrolled, but it is setting the thinking pace in industrial unionism. Even the genius of Soviet Russia,
Nicolai Lenin, acknowledged a debt to De Leon when he said,
in an interview with Robert Minor: "The American Daniel De Leon
first formulated the idea of a Soviet government, which grew
up in Russia on his idea.
Future society will be organized
along Soviet lines.
There will be Soviet rather than geo
graphical boundaries for nations. Industrial unionism is the basic state. That is what we are building.'
The I. W. W., whose philosophy Hoxie called essentially a "doctrine of despair", has, under the goad of persecution, come to number 100,000 duerpaying members. The Hotel Workers'
Federation rebelled against the m. H. of L. less than four
years ago; from a few hundred members in January, 1917, it
grew to 1,000 in the spring of that year, to 15,000 in Octo
4 ber, 1919, and to 20,000 in March, 1920. The One Big Union
issued 30,000 membership cards in the first four months of
1. Statement of Gen. Sec.-Treas, in letter, March 11, 1920.