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emperor's men, then residing in London, who were obliged to pay to the king, for his protection, twice a year, (at Christmas and Easter) two pieces of grey, and one piece of brown cloth, ten pounds of pepper, five pair of gloves, and two casks of wine.
Under the auspices of Canute the Great, the trade of England flourished greatly; and the English merchants, particularly those of London, acquired a degree of weight and influence in the public councils of the kingdom, formerly unknown. This is evident from their importance at the commencement of the subsequent reign. Canute was dead,” says the Saxon chronicle, great assembly of the nobility met at Oxford, where were present Earl Leofric, almost all the Thanes to the north of the Thames, and the seamen of London, who chose Harold to be king of all England.” These seamen of London, who were members of this wittenagemot, or great council, were probably such merchants of that city as had made three voyages beyond seas, and had thereby acquired (according to a law of Athelstan's) a legal title to the dignity of Thanes.
At the time of the conquest, London ventured to sally out on the conqueror, but without success. It fell, however, more by internal faction, than its own weakness : yet there was strength enough left to make William think proper to secure their allegiance, by building that strong fortress, the Tower. In seventy years from that event, Fitzstephen pretends, that London mustered sixty thousand foot, and twenty thousand horse.
Richard I. to support the madness of the crusades, received from the citizens a large sum of money : and in return, permitted them to chuse annually two officers, under the name of bailiffs, or sheriffs ; who were to supersede the former. The names of the two first, upon record, are Wolgarius and Geffry de Magnum.
In the next reign was added the office of Mayor, a title borrowed from the Norman Maire, as well as the office. Henry Fitz-alywn was the first elected to that trust.
Henry III. after the citizens had suffered many oppressions, restored their government, and appointed twenty-four citizens to share the power. In his son's reign, we find the city divided into twentyfour wards; the supreme magistrate of which was named Alderman, a very ancient Saxon title, signi-. fying a man advanced in years, and of superior prudence and gravity.
The ancient city was defended in front by the river; on the west side by the deep ravine, since known by the name of Fleet-ditch; on the north by morasses; and on the east, by another ravine. All the land round Westminster Abbey was a flat fen, which continued beyond Fulham: but a rise commences opposite to it, and forms a magnificent bend above the curvature of the Tbames, even to the Tower. The Surry side was in all probability a great expanse of water, or lake, which an ingenious countryman of Mr. Pennant's, not without reason, thinks might have given a name to our capital, Llyn Din, or the city on the lake. Such is a brief view of the ancient history of London.
Mr Pennant begins his tour, by crossing over the Thames to Jambeth. In the earlier times it was a manor, possibly a royal one, for the great Hardiknut died here in 1042, in the midst of the jollity of a wedding dinner; and here, without any formality, the usurper Harold is said to have snatched the crown, and placed it on his own head. ' At that period it was part of the estate of Godr, wife to Walter earl of Mantes, and Eustace earl of Boulogne; who presented it to the church of Rochester, but reserved
to herself the patronage of the church. It became, in 1197, the property of the see of Canterbury, by exchange transacted between Glanville, bishop of Rochester, and the archbishop Hubert Walter, though the palace is said to have been founded by Baldwin, in 1188. Walter and Langton successively lived at the manor-house of Lambeth. The last improved it; but the building was afterwards neglected and became ruinous. No pious zeal restored the place, but the madness of priestly pride. Boniface, a wrathful and turbulent primate, elected in 1244, took into his head to become a visitor of the priory of St. Bartholomew, to which he had no right. The monks met him with reverential respect, but assured him the office did not belong to the bishop. The meek prelate rushed on the sub-prior, knocked him down, kicked, beat, and buffeted him, tore the cope off his back, and stamped on it like one possessed; while his attendants payed the same compliments to all the poor monks. The people enraged at his unpriestly conduct, would have torn him to pieces; when he retired to Lambeth, and, by way of expiation, rebuilt it with great magnificence.
This palace was very highly improved by the munificent Henry Chichely, who enjoyed the primacy from 1414 to 1443. He was a worthy man, but a bigot, as the Lollard's tower, built by him, evinces. Neither protestants nor catholics should omit visiting this tower, the cruel prison of the unhappy followers of Wickliffe. The vast staples and rings, to which they were chained before they were brought to the stake, ought to make protestants bless the hour which freed them from so bloody a religion.
After the civil wars of the last century, when fanatical was united with political fury, was found that every building devoted to piety, had suffered more than they had done in all the rage of family contest. The fine works of art, and the sacred me. morials of the dead, were, except in a few cases, sacrificed to puritanical barbarism, or to sacrilegious plunder.
The parish church of Lambeth is at a small distance from the palace, has a plain tower, and the architecture is of the gothic, of the time of Edward IV. It has very little remarkable in it, except the figure of a pedlar and his dog, painted in one of the windows. Tradition says, that the parish was obliged to this man for the bequest of a piece of land, which bears the name of the Pedlar's Acre.
Before we go any farther, let us mention the sad example of fallen majesty in the person Mary d’Este, the unhappy queen of James II; who flying with her infant prince from the ruin impending over their house, after crossing the Thames from the abdicated Whitehall, took shelter beneath the ancient walls of this church a whole hour, from the rain of the inclement night of December 6th, 1688. Here she waited with aggravated misery, till a common coach, procured from the next inn, arrived, and conveyed her to Gravesend, from whence she sailed, and bid an eternal adieu to these kingdoms.
In the church-yard is a tomb, which no naturalist should neglect visiting; that of old John Tradescant, who with his son, lived in this parish. The elder was the first person who ever formed a cabinet of curiosities in this kingdom. The father is said to have been gardener to Charles s. Both father
were great travellers; the father is supposed to have visited Russia and most parts of Europe, Turkey, Greece, many of the eastern countries, Egypt, and Barbary; out of which he introduced multitudes of plants and flowers, unknown before in our gardens. His was an age of florists: the chief ornaments of the parterres were owing to his labours. Parkinson continually acknowledges the obligation. Many plants were called after his name; these the
Linnæan system has rendered almost obsolete; but
Know stranger, ere thou pass, beneath this stone
From Lambeth, Mr. Pennant returned by the water-side, near the end of Westminster-bridge, along a tract, once a dreary marsh, and still in parts called Lambeth-marsh; about the year 1560, there was not a house on it, from Lambeth palace as far as Southwark. In a street called Narrow-wall, is Mrs. Coade's manufacture of artificial stone. Her repository consists of several very large rooms, filled with every ornament which can be used in architecture. The statue, the vase, the urn, the rich chimney-pieces, and, in a few words, every thing which could be produced out of natural stone or marble by the most elegant chisel, is here to be obtained, at an easy rate.
Notwithstanding the climate of Great Britain has at least of late years, been unfavourable to the production of wines; yet in the year 1635, we began to make some from the raisins or drieit grapes of Spain and Portugal. Francis Chamberlayne made the attempt, and obtained a patent for fourteen years,