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deleterious to the feathered race. A few grains and morning light-the instinctive attraction of the small or Russian hemp may be admitted with all unsophisticated nature. to the store-closet, but only “exhibited” as a I have been, in this resumé, desirous to pretreat, indicative of a rendre being looked for serve to their possessors these justly-deserved your bullfinch to “pipe" an extra waltz, your favourites. While, in reality, they are sufcanary to perform his feats of love--but parrots ferers from captivity, they are supposed to be are more than any other birds subject to ail gifted with endurance proportionate to their ments, the “cure" for which has puzzled size--a too common error !--their endearing learned ornithologists; the “prevention" ways-their extraordinary powers of imitation, should be addressed to preserving a pure state both of words and actions, would almost argue of blood. A chicken-bone is not hurtful to a a sense beyond that of instinct. Companionhealthy bird; but, to the pampered, gouty able, capable of strong attachment, and ready “individual,” plain fare is advisable : fruits are to forgive us the misfortune of imprisonment, wholesome. On these matters I shall here are strong appeals to considerate treatment. after fully treat, confining myself to this addi These prefatory pages touch only upon getional observation, that atrophy is among their neral management; the peculiarities of indicomplaints; therefore, nourishing plain food vidual species will elicit, in future chapters, will best avert the evil. The French call one dis observations upon natural tendencies, seasonorder "s'arracher les plumes," and it is among able distribution, and migratory impulses, so the most serious. The greediness of this class far as to render easy the transition from birds is proverbial, indigestion results, and, like all on the wing to those in confinement. over-indulged “darlings,” they carry out by Birds are, to the observer, harbingers of all temper those unwholesome measures once in changes in nature; they are the keys to natural judiciously indulged. The food of parrots being history, and, if we persist in keeping them in succulent, they do not appear to drink; but so a state never designed, let us, at least, subnecessary are liquids to them, that sugar-candy stitute care, kindness, and the nearest apis frequently added to the water in the cup to proach, in their treatment, to the provision so tempt them.

bountifully supplied where they are indigenous One great and general error is the cold to to the soil. which these poor sufferers are exposed. In ! It may here be observed, that while some of neither the Old nor the New Continent are our natives and strangers require to be placed they to be found, with few exceptions, in a in separate cages, as much from their shy colder latitude than 25 degrees. I therefore habits as from some peculiarity in their allotrecommend a night covering, only descending, ment of food, others—and by far the most for obvious reasons, half-way downwards, -a numerous delight in the freedom of an aviary plan I adopt successfully with all my birds. or aviary-cage. Of the provision necessaryIf the cage is circular, the covering fits the of the suitability of the proposed inmatesupper portion ; if oblong, it extends over half I am prepared to write, having been the posof the two sides, one end and top; thereby | sessor of birds, in both positions, for many giving warmth and seclusion, with pure air | years.

INNOCENCE. The works of Jean Baptiste Greuze, the | The terms here applied may seem somewhat painter of the elegant little picture from which harsh and unjust in the opinion of those who the engraving entitled “ Innocence" is taken, regard art as intended only to confer a tranmay be cited as exemplifying the general cha- sient enjoyment, and feel not that its highest racter of the French school of art during the and holiest end is to exercise an efficient moral past century, prior to the appearance of David, power on mankind. who seems to have arrived just in time to The corruptions which had spread over the rescue it from the low state of inanity, feeble whole surface of society in France before the ness, and falsehood, into which it was rapidly great Revolution, and which broke out in those sinking; though he perpetuated many of its terrible convulsions that to this day still agitate errors, especially its affectations; from these it, penetrated even to the retirement of the it seems almost impossible for the majority of artist's studio, and too often infected his labour's the French artists to disengage themselves. | with their unhealthy and unworthy influences;


so that the result of those labours, as a portraits; the only historical work from his modern writer eloquently and enthusiastically hand is “ Severus reprimanding his son Cararemarks, when speaking of the state of art | calla." The titles of some of his most popular generally, “ has never taught us one deep or pictures will best explain the sort of subject holy lesson; it has not recorded that which is he usually selected : “ The Good Father," fieeting, nor penetrated that which is hidden, “ The little Girl and the Dog,” “ Good Edunor interpreted that which was obscure; it has cation,” “ The Blind Man cheated,” “ The never made us feel the wonder, nor the power, Broken Pitcher," " The Village Bride," &c. &c. nor the glory, of the universe; it has not He had a decided partiality for exciting and prompted to devotion, nor touched with awe; pathetic scenes, but generally treated them its power to move and exalt the heart has been with a degree of extravagance and affectation fatally abused, and perished in the abusing. | that destroyed their natural truth and simThat which ought to have been a witness to plicity. The same remark will apply to his the omnipotence of God has become an exhi- | portraits, especially of young females; they bition of the dexterity of man, and that which are graceful but not refined, and sometimes should have lifted our thoughts to the throne not chaste in expression of character. Greuze of the Deity has encumbered them with the was long an associate of the French Academy; inventions of his creatures." *

but upon being elected a full member, he was It is impossible to separate national art from placed in the genre class, which he considered national tastes and habits; the philosophy of below his deserts, and therefore retired altothe studio, so to speak, is derived from the gether from the institution. He died at an pursuits and the predilections of the commu

edilections of the commu- advanced age in 1805. nity. The mythology of the ancient Greeks Within the last few years the pictures of this peopled their groves and temples with the painter have been much sought after in this statues and paintings of their deities; the country by collectors, but for what reason it is saint-worship of the middle ages called into difficult to understand, inasmuch as they have existence the host of great names which have comparatively little merit as works of real art. immortalised the schools of Italy and Spain, His figures are generally correct and vigorous and, later still, a few in that of the Low | in drawing, but, as previously remarked, exCountries; while Watteau and Greuze found travagant in expression ; his colouring, examid the gaieties and frivolities of the time of cept his flesh tints, is cold, feeble, and inLouis XIV and his successors fit subjects for harmonious, and his light and shade are untheir pencils. The argument applies equally skilfully and ineffectually managed. But he to every period and country; few among us has recently grown into fashion, and consebut would prefer a group of dogs by Landseer, quently large sums are now offered for proa “Boy's School" by Webster, or a landscapeductions that scarcely exhibit either mind or by Creswick, to any “St. Jerome” or “St. matter. As an instance of this, the writer Agnes” that ever was painted. But we are | was present at a sale of pictures a year or two not prepared to argue that such preferences since, when a small oval painting, representing are, in all cases, to be encouraged ; apart from only the head of a young girl, was knocked the pleasure to be derived from pictures, is down to the present Marquis of Hertford for the consideration-certainly of no less import upwards of eight hundred guineas; a dozen ance--what mental enjoyment will their pos works, better in every respect, might have session afford? Like books, unless they teach been purchased out of our annual exhibitions us something, they are comparatively worthless, for less than the sum paid for this single piece and may be classed only among the ornamental of prettiness. furniture of the apartment where they hang. The original of the “Innocence” is certainly

Greuze was born in 1726, at Tournus, in among the best pictures of its class which Burgundy, and studied painting first in Lyons, Greuze painted; it is more free from affectation, afterwards at the Academy of Arts in Paris, and charms no less by its sweetness of expresand subsequently in Rome. His pictures are sion than by its purity; it shows, that if the chiefly of what is called the genre kind, that artist had been thrown amid other scenes, or is, they refer to domestic scenes and ordinary | had his mind been directed by more elevated incidents of life, and he frequently painted principles, he might have risen to the rank of

a great painter ; but now, as one of his coun* Preface to the second edition of Ruskin's

trymen writes of him, he is only “ unique” in “ Modern Painters."

the French school.



stitches o’nights, and days too. He's as high “ And what will you do with yours, Willy?” up as a gentleman, and yet he's as keen after

“I dun know," replied the heavy-looking a job as a cat after a sparra." urchin, while he turned the halfpence over The two boys lounged away, while the third and over in his hand; "two hap'nees; it's not —the only one of the three who had earned much.” Ned piroutted on one broad bare foot, his penny, by holding a gentleman's horse for and tossed a summerset on the pavement, close a moment, while the others looked on-had to the pretty basket shop at a corner of Covent passed rapidly to a small circulating library Garden Market, while “ Willy" pondered over near Cranbourne Alley, and laying down his the halfpence. When “ Ned" recovered his penny on the counter, looked in the bookbreath, and had shouldered the door-post for seller's face, and said, “ Please, sir, will you half a minute, he again spoke :

lend me the works of Benjamin Franklin--for “ And that one, just riding away on his fine a penny?” responsible horse, thought he'd make our for The bookseller looked at the boy, and then tunes, this frosty new-year's morning, with at the penny, and inquired if he were the lad his three pence betwixt three of us--and his who had carried the parcels about for Thomas grand condition, that we should meet him Brand, when he was ill. on this spot, if living, this day twel'months, The boy said he was. and tell him what we did with the pennies! " And would you like to do so now, on your Hurroo ! as if we could remember. I say, own account ?" was the next question. The Willy, suppose you and I toss up for them pale pinched-up features of the youth crimsoned head wins?”

all over, and his dark deep-set eyes were illu“No, no," replied the prudent Willy, put mined as if by magic. ting the halfpence into his pocket, and at “ Be your messenger, sir ?-indeed I would.” tempting to button the garment; an unsuc " Who could answer for your character ?" cessful attempt, inasmuch as there was no “My mother, sir ; she knows me best,” he button : "No; I'll not make up my mind replied with great simplicity. jist yet; I'll may-be let it lie, and show it him “But who knows her?" said the bookseller, this day twal'month. He may give more for smiling. taking care of un."

“Not many, sir ; but the landlady where “Easy, easy," persisted Ned, “let tail win, we live, and some few others." if you don't like head.”

The bookseller inquired what place of wor“I'll not have it, no way.”

ship they attended. * But where's Richard gone?” inquired the The lad told him, but added, "My mother careless boy, after varying his exercise by | has not been there lately." walking on his hands, and kicking his feet in “Why not ?" the air.

The deep flush returned, but the expression "I dun know" replied the other; "it's most of the face told of pain, not pleasure. “My molike he's gone home : that's where he goes most ther, sir, has not been well-and--the weather times : he comes the gentleman over us becase is cold---and her clothes are not warm." He of his edication."

eagerly inquired if he was wanted that day. "He has no spirit," said Ned, contemptuous The bookseller told him to be there at half-past ly; "he never spends his money like-like seven the next morning, and that, meanwhile, me."

he would inquire into his character. “He got the lucky penny,' for all that,” | The boy could hardly speak; unshed tears answered Willy, "for I saw the hole in it my stood in his eyes, and, after sundry scrapes and self."

bows, he rushed from the shop. " Look at that now!" exclaimed Ned; “it's “ Holloa, youngster !" called out the bookever the way with him ; see now, if that don't seller, “ you have not told me your mother's turn up something before the year's out. While name or address." The boy gave both, and we sleep under bridges, in tatur-baskets, and again ran off. Again the bookseller shouted, darkies,' he sleeps on a bed ; and his mother “Holloa !"

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