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CAMPAGNA DI ROMA.
THEY alone who are unacquainted with the Italian language need to be informed that the term Campagna, though generally used with reference only to the country round about the city of Rome, is also applied to other localities in Italy as the Campagna of Florence, the Campagna Felice, in the kingdom of Naples. The Campagna di Roma includes a vast territory of some sixty miles in length, by nearly fifty in breadth, which contains several towns of good repute, besides the former capital of the western world.
If there be one part of Europe which offers to the traveller whose thoughts are with the past, and whose mind is stored with the spoils of time, stronger inducement to visit it than another, it assuredly is this portion of the Papal States, which, under its ancient title of Latium, once occupied so prominent a position in the history of mankind. Every step his foot takes is on classic ground, hallowed in his recollection by the events which have transpired within its limits; but the portion which more especially would attract his attention is that lying immediately about the city of Rome, to the south and east of the Capitol, and along the Palatine, Quirinal, and Aventine hills, on each side of the Tiber
"Everywhere . Some trace of valour or heroic toil ! Here is the sacred field of the Horatii, There the Quintian meadows. Here the hill, How holy, where a generous people, twice, Twice going forth, in terrible anger sate Armed; and, their wrongs redressed, at once gave
way; Helmet and shield, and sword and spear, thrown
down, And every hand uplifted, every heart Poured out in thanks to heaven."
Now, let us suppose the traveller, after a long day's wandering through this locality, flings himself wearily on one of those lofty eminences, and, as the evening sun lights up the whole scene around him, he falls into a deep reverie, haunted with "visions of the dead," passing in review before his eyes, from the hour
« when he from Troy Went up the Tiber," till Generic, the Vandal, covered the land with his barbaric armies. What a dream of glory to the imagination! How the memory recals the deeds of brave renown in the warriors of ancient Rome
“Her demi-gods, in senate met,
This is the dream of her greatness and her triumph, her magnificence and her patriotism ; but it is followed by another, in which tyranny and sensuality, passion and lawlessness, usurped the places of more noble feelings :
“ Hark! a yell, a shriek, A barbarous outcry, loud, and louder yet, That echoes from the mountain to the sea ! And mark, * * * * like a bursting cloud, The battle moving onward! Had they slain All, that the earth should from her womb bring
forth New nations to destroy them? From the depth Of forests, from what none had dared explore, Regions of thrilling ice, as though in ice Engendered, multiplied, they pour along, Shaggy and huge ! Host after host they come; The Goth, the Vandal, and again the Goth !”
But, amid the impending desolation of a mighty heathen nation, there arises another power, which Rome, through the cross of Constantine, wields over the civilized world, and brings it into subjugation: the tiara of the priest has pushed aside the iron crown of the soldier; the incense of the Christian's offering smokes upon the ruined altars of pagan sacrifice; and now, at the expiration of fifteen hundred years, we find
“Groves, temples, palaces, Swept from the sight; and nothing visible Amid the sulphurous vapours that exhale, As from a land accurst, save here and there An empty tomb, a fragment like the limb Of some dismembered giant. In the midst, A city stands, her domes and turrets crowned With many a cross; but they that issue forth, Wander like strangers who had built among The mighty ruins, silent, spiritless; And on the road where once we might have met Cæsar, and Cato, and men more than kings, We meet, none else, the pilgrim and the beggar.”
Well, it is thus; but, nevertheless, a pilgrimage to the Campagna di Roma is worth the undertaking, even if one cares not to worship at the shrine of St. Peter; and prefers rather to sit, like Marius, among the ruins of Carthage, beneath one of the time-worn fragments of ancient Rome, or under the majestic tree that throws its deep shadow on the waters
that run at the base of some modern temple in | Mr. Crouch's classic picture.
A LETTER FROM IRELAND, IN SEPTEMBER, 1852.
# # Killarney. I The " season” (for Dublin has its season) is You ask me if the country is much changed: over, and the inhabitants are either luxuriating and, now that we have journeyed from the in the beauty of the bays and breezes, the “black north" to the sweet south, what we rivers and mountains, of their native country, " think" of it ?
or “ touring it,” abroad or at home; still there I have never had time to "think" while in is a great pulsation going on in the very heart Ireland ; seeing and feeling so much and so of “the city," which, by next May, will burst rapidly prepares one far too little for thought; forth, not into outrage, but into a peace-offerthought must be the produce of hereafter ; ing—a "great Exhibition" of industrial artbut I can tell you a few of my "impressions." proving still more largely what Irish resources The old friends that remain greet us with their are, and at the same time inviting competition old affection ; but more than one, or two, or from other lands. The plans are all prepared three high-born families—whom we knew and -the site decided upon-subscriptions paid, or loved-have been swept, as it were, completely promised--the great stronghold being the away; and, though we were aware that such energy and liberality of the same gentleman was the case, and that their homes had passed, who gave confidence to the projectors of the into the hands of the stranger, the realization Cork Exhibition, by his liberal donation at its of the fact certainly cast a shadow over our commencement. I do trust and believe that footsteps during our brief sojourn in Dublin. the undertaking will prosper as it deserves. You must not smile when I say the streets of Cork planted its first step firmly, it kept its the city look lonely “without the beggars." promise, and more than paid its way; it burst I pray you to understand that I do not wish forth with true Celtic spirit- the Dublin them back ; those whom the pestilence spared committee for the proposed Exhibition has are better off in the workhouse, and the in more time to organize its proceedings; and, habitants and tourists do better without them | judging from the present zeal and industry of
-no question about that. Their misery is its various members, the undertaking will not both alleviated and concealed, and Dublin is only receive, but command support, and draw almost as free from mendicants as London ; thousands of visitors, next summer, to the but yet their bright change of wit was a good banks of the Liffy. exchange for the copper coin, or the silver There was something singularly strange to fourpence, which gained you the ready-made us in the great steam "movement," which has, blessing and made you smile. However, as far since our last visit to Ireland, altogether as Dublin is concerned, “ street beggars” are changed the character of Irish travelling. We matters of history. *
could hardly believe we were skirting the bay
of Dublin on a railroad, and then darting off to * Some of the Irish gentry depict all Irish men
the “north,” freighted with the wisdom of the dicants (who are still in considerable force at the tourist stations) as “impostors," and set down
“ British Association," and the brilliant cortége those who relieve or sympathize with them as fools. of the popular lord-lieutenant, who were to If the Irish mendicants are all impostors, then are assemble, on business and pleasure, in Belfast. the tales of Irish distress all untruths ; for one is the
The line from Dublin to Belfast is not yet comconsequence of the other. There are impostors in Ireland, as well as in England; but to say, as I pleted, so the passengers-first, second, and read it this morning, in a very intelligent and third class—with their luggage, were turned, pleasing little guide-book, by “ An Old Traveller," in a most miscellaneous manner, into cars and and published by the Dublin Murray, McGlashan,
omnibuses, to cross the “Boyne Water," and that “tourists have created this abomination," isto speak of it very politely— A GREAT MISTAKE.
meet, as one of the drivers expressed it, "the Beggars and begging were rife in Ireland before a tail of the other tay-kettle," at the opposite side. dozen tourists had crossed “the herring-pond” You would have been exceedingly amused those who repeated their wit and repartee, chro
by the confusion and chaos which occurred nicled what might have been said to a dozen others, but was no less clever on that account. The during this singular transit, upon which the Irish beggars are not the only wits who rehearse sun shone with unclouded brilliancy. Every their good things, and repeat them frequently. vehicle was crowded-every unfortunate qua“ You've crammed your wit to cram me," said one of those “hard” gentlemen to a witty beggar.
druped overweighted: in one corner of a “ Why, thin, if I did,” was the reply. “it was all I
“two-horse car” was seated an archbishop, had to cram, and you're too crammed to take it.” balanced at the opposite side by the great
oracle surgeon of the age-whose wit is as could he do without his sword and his boots, bright as his knowledge is profound—and who and his boots and his sword? Still the wonder enjoyed the mêlée with a true sense of the ridi was, (considering the bustle occasioned by the culous; the pallid Napoleon-like face of Prince transit of the British Association and the lordBonaparte contrasted with the restless expres lieutenant,) not that this half-innocent, halfsion of a Russian prince, whose moustachios knowing youth had lost so material a part of extracted some not very original wit from the his wardrobe, but that anybody recovered multitude of ragged boys, who screamed and theirs. And when at last we found each other, tumbled along the road—“Will I, sur—will I, and were all seated “at the tail of the other my lady, stand on my head ? just one ha'penny. tay-kettle," we were still more astonished that Sure I'll stand on my head for a ha’penny; we all fell into right places, considering how I'll stand as straight as a rush on my head for a small and ill-organized a staff was appointed to ha'penny, sur.” Even in that I saw a change attend to the wants and wishes of such a nuit was not the kneeling, screaming, downright merous assembly. do-nothing begging of the olden days; the When we arrived at Belfast, we found the ragged urchins wanted to earn the “ha'penny" population of that highly prosperous and inby standing on their heads; it was a step or a creasing town literally “out of the windows," toss with the times—it was (laugh if you please) for every window was open, and filled with an improvement -- it was more than some ladies waving handkerchiefs, while the crowd thing; and they did stand on their heads, and beneath screamed and scrambled; and triscream and jump “Jim Crow," and escape in umphal arches were crowned with flags and the most miraculous manner from under the flowers, bands playing, and cannon firing; and very feet of the horses, until we believed in the mayor met the lord-lieutenant, and the the opinion expressed by a grim old Scotch lord-lieutenant met the mayor, as if they had man-a philosopher, doubtless—who observed, been friends from the days of Fin ma Cowl. that "the right way to get boys into danger The wise, and grave, and learned members of was to take care of them.” And while we the British Association were quite forgotten in rattled and “tore" over the bridge, the beau this first burst of loyalty; and, so great was tiful Boyne rolled beneath, freighted with the turmoil, that we were but too happy to memories of very different import to the still escape to the other terminus, where we again divided “ factions” of Ireland. If I journeyed steamed away, and in little more than an hour frequently to Belfast, I think I should be sorry arrived at the noble and hospitable castle, when the railway is quite finished, and pro within sight of the inland sea of Loch Neagh, perly and discreetly managed; a little variety where we were to spend some happy days. enhances the pleasure of travelling, and Ireland Of all the “ four quarters," " the north” prois becoming so very like England in its iron gresses the most steadily; not only in one highways, that, but for the guard's plaintive and branch, but in art, commerce, and manufacture. repeated entreaties at the different stations, of - In Belfast commenced those extraordinary “Oh! then now, gentlemen, for God's sake take efforts to give profitable means of employment yer seats, will you, if you pleese ? sure the train to the female peasants of the surrounding can't keep time this way, no how! Oh, then, country, and the blessing of industry has ingo in, and good luck to ye! Oh, do!"--and the creased the small “comforts" of the people in fying peep at a dilapidated cabin, or an exqui various ways: the cottages look more prospersite bit of mountain scenery, or a magnificent ous, though they are not so numerous as they ruin, or a rushing, foaming river, and the one were ten years ago; and wherever we turned want, the dreary want, of trees—we might in Belfast, we heard the sound of the mason's fancy ourselves in “the sister country ;" but trowel and the carpenter's saw. Buildings are the "Dublin and Belfast line" is not well progressing as rapidly in and about this northmanaged yet, as the lamentation of a good ern town as they are in the neighbourhood of natured, bewildered young Englishman testi London ; the “Linen Hall” is in itself, and for fied. He expected considerable sympathy for its suggestions, and the beauty of order in the loss of “twenty-two pair of boots and a its arrangements, worthy a pilgrimage; the sword,” which “his rascal" had put up in a “School of Design” is filled with anxious and great hurry, and which could be found no earnest pupils; the “Botanic Garden," we where! There was something irresistibly droll were told, was greatly improved ; and we in his lamentations, and the often-repeated should have been pleased to inspect the Coldetermination to make the railway company | lege, but it had been taken possession of by pay for them; but, in the meantime, what the sections of " THE BRITISH ASSOCIATION,',