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ing without hope! without faith! trembling women have pined and died from contradiction on the brink of the damp, hollow grave, from before now! I could not help it ! if she would which he believed, or desperately thought he watch and pray by night, and catch consumpbelieved, there was no resurrection. What tion, what could I do? She had a doctor, too; availed his heaps of gold, the greetings of though the boy upbraided me, and said, 'not men in the market-places, the notoriety until it was too late!' My own child taunted achieved by his wealth, he must exchange me; and that dreary night I was heated, as I all for the putrid grave--for that consum was but now; for I had drunk much wine, to mation he had toiled_living his latter years give me strength to look upon the face of unloving and unbeloved - living without a death. Thus nerved, he bade me back-dared blessing, dying without a hope!
me to take the seat which he had left-stood John, the eldest of the two old men by one in my path-I struck him down. As I am a hour, laid his hand gently-pityingly—on his living man, the dead cried out! It was no brother's shoulder. “Frank,” he said, “ this fancy; for years I have been started from my must not be--this cannot be! My poor brother, sleep by that same cry!" His shrunken chest what fearful tortures you must have gone heaved convulsively, and he shuddered so, that through to have come to this."
his after-words came trembling from his quivThe gentle, tender tone of the voice, the ering lips. “I raised him in my arms, and loving pity of the words, touched him; the laid him in my own bed; and when I went wine fever was abating—the bitterness giving for help, he crawled back, and there again I way; he was never otherwise than hard and found him, kneeling beside her corpse. If I severe, but he had become a demon under the injured her, she was revenged by the deep unusual influence of the old wine. He with hatred that most beautiful of boys bore to me drew his hands from his full, but wrinkled his father! Oh! how I watched and waited, brow, and spoke :-"You do not spurn away thinking to win his love; how I sought to disyour infidel brother? She learned to shrink cover his tastes, his fancies, and force them to from my touch before she died. The preachers the one purpose-affection for myself. Allspoke got hold of her; men who cry perpetually, of his beauty, and congratulated me on having • Flee from the sinner-flee from the sinner, such a son, a scholar and a gentleman, to hold and leave him to destruction ;' but that was high place in good society. I wish I could not all—the mother of five children-but one have hated him; no, cold as he was to me, survived ---one boy- beautiful as she had | he was my pride, but as he grew, his genius been. I looked to that boy to take up my life, was cramped by fanaticism; he sought conand in his turn bequeath it to his child-that venticles, and took companionskip with Mewas the immortality I sought! John, she taught thodists, little caring what I thought. And that boy to shudder at my voice; she did then his health failed, and I sent him from his more! she strengthened him in what she associates into the country, hoping he might called a faithful standing up against Apolyon. be tempted into the manly pastimes of the I will tell you ; I would not have my child English field. What did he then? Married think and feel as I do for the universe! I while a mere boy, he married a farmer's would teach my enemy to do so, not my friend daughter. He, whom I hoped would have ---not my child," the old man groaned.
brought family and distinction, enriched our “Speak freely,” said John, soothingly; “I blood by means of my hard-earned wealth, pity you the more, but do not love you the wedded a low-born, silly girl-a loving fool, less, my brother !”
no more! And when I questioned him--hoping “But Margaret thought I would have taken they were not wed-he said she was good away the stay, the hope, from my own child, enough for him ; that his mother had often told though I had nothing to give him in return! him of the lowly struggles and station of our She made him dread his father. My child young life; and how riches, such as I possessed, shrank from my side; those eyes of light be never brought honour or honourable distinccame dark when I drew near; and when my tion. I told him he was no more son of mine; wife lay dead, that boy watched beside her, and he coolly wished that such were possible! lest I should disturb the inanimate clay by my I never saw him after." presence. He rose against me when I crept “Did he leave no children?” inquired John. into the room to look my last on her-it might “ What care I!” said Frank, fiercely. “If be in love, or hate-he rose against me, up- he left a swarm of children, what is that to braided me like a strong man, for having me? My heart was forthwith locked against broken her heart. I did not do it, John- | him and all the world; I have long shut out all human sympathies, and never thought to I will find them out. I do not seek to exculbe moved again as I have been moved to pate him from the great crime of disobe. night. Now, brother John, you know me, or dience, but I will find his widow, and her nearly so. It may be that you leave me to children." morrow: there is no reason why we should "Aye, try it; I knew you would,” said seek to please each other-neither can serve Frank, worn out by his unusual emotion ; the other's interests."
" they will be Margaret's grandchildren." "Enough of this stony creed !” exclaimed “And yours." the stranger. “I have heard so much, that Frank Oldham tossed his arms wildly out, I can endure no more to night. I warn you as if he would cast them from him; and the of one thing-if your son left children, I | old men separated for the night.
ITALY AND HER FOREMOST MEN.*
In our preceding remarks concerning Rome | as receiving within its walls, in the first seven and the Papal States, we have shown upon months of the past year, 3745 persons, from a what obsolete and absurd principles their pre population not exceeding 120,000 souls, the sent existing laws are founded ; the unjust and prisoner is generally removed to the Carcere contradictory manner in which those laws are nuore, or new prisons, where he is placed in administered, and the disreputable character segreta, or secret confinement. This segreta is and conduct of too many of the individuals to a subterranean chamber, about ten or twelve whom the power of carrying them into execu feet square, and the same height, with a vaulted tion is entrusted. It is now our more painful roof, containing one sole aperture for air and duty-a duty we owe alike to humanity and light. In this cell frequently twelve or fourteen truth-to inquire into the effects of such a unhappy wretches, not condemned, but only system of government upon those unfortunate suspected, are pent up, in a space that does enough to be subjected to its tyranny; to con not allow more air than is required for four or sider the severity of the sentences that follow five. In one of those cells, by order of some a secret accusation, and a mockery of a trial; previous Pope, who had more compassion for and to throw open the doors of the prisons, the sufferings and sorrows of his subjects than wide enough to show the horrors to which Pio Nono has ever shown, a marble inscription their unhappy inmates are exposed.
was put up, directing that not more than eight Under the old clerical régime, the prisons persons should be confined in it at once; notand galleys of Rome were in a most deplorable withstanding which edict, twenty-two persons condition. At the epoch of the Italian revival, were very recently crammed into this same and during the constitution, Doctor Luigi cell! Carlo Farini, at this time minister of public What renders this over-crowded state still instruction in Piedmont, was appointed to the more intolerable is, that no classification, either superintendence of them; and under his direc with regard to offence or station in society, is tion many abuses were destroyed, and the made. A young man accused of attending an whole system was much ameliorated. But obnoxious meeting, or merely suspected of powith the restoration of the papacy came the litical disaffection, may be placed side by side restoration of all the evils, in every department, with a murderer, or a miscreant whose crimes of the old clerical administration.
disgrace humanity; and Colonel Grandoni, a We have already stated that a Roman citizen gentleman in every sense of the word, is at may be dragged from his home, even in the this moment associated, by the infamy of his middle in the night, without any charge being gaolers, with the very dregs of society, in one specified against him, and confined, for an in common prison. There are at this time seven definite period, in any of the ordinary prisons. hundred prisoners in the Carcere nuove, Out That of Monte Citorio is the one to which an of seventy-five who were personally known to unfortunate is usually sent, immediately upon a highly respectable resident in Rome, holding his arrest; from this depôt, as it may be con an important official situation, only thirty residered; and which we have already mentioned main; fever, consumption, sickness of the
heart, and, unhappily, suicide, having burst * Continued from page 111.
the bonds of the rest.
Each prisoner has a bag of musty straw, never changed, and generally swarming with vermin, for his bed, without any sort of covering. Of the internal arrangements of the cells we cannot allow ourselves to speak; suffice it to say, that anything more revolting to decency, more injurious to health, more disgusting in every respect, cannot be imagined. The most ferocious and hardened criminals in the cell make a point of assailing and stripping all new comers, and subjecting them to the most atrocious outrages, whilst the keepers themselves have frequently cruelly beaten, for pretended insubordination, the injured parties, who have cried to them for help ; nay, murders have been committed within the very walls of the prison, and no notice taken of them. · The food of the prisoners is usually calculated at two pounds of bread, twelve ounces to the pound, nominally, but in reality eighteen or nineteen ounces in the whole, instead of twenty-four; a soup of paste, rice, or beans; three ounces of meat, of the most disgusting quality, and a foglietta, about a pint, of the commonest wine. This is the ration issued once in every twenty-four hours. The style of the prisoners' living may be appreciated by our readers, when we inform them that the original contract between the government and purveyors of the prisons, allows nine-and-a-half baiocchi (fourpence three farthings) per diem, for the food, clothing, and all other expenses of each prisoner. This contract is then taken by a sub-contractor, at only seven-and-a-half baiocchi per head; and in some of the provinces it is still lower. It is in speaking of the segreta that we mention meat, such as it is, being given every day; in many prisons it is only allowed twice a week. . With these seven baiocchi and a half, per diem, for each prisoner, the contractor has to pay all his underlings, besides the expenses of warehouses and carriage, and the interest of the capital he may employ in the speculation. He must, moreover, have all the keepers and inspectors accomplices in his frauds, because, if he were to abide honestly by the terms of his contract, he would be ruined, as far as his worldly interests might be concerned. These gentry must, consequently, be very highly bribed : we know of one keeper who receives from a contractor as much as thirty scudi a month, under various false pretences. It may easily be imagined what much larger sums the inspectors and superior officers are paid in proportion; and all these sums have to be des ducted out of the miserable pittance allotted to the maintenance of the prisoners, whether
innocent or guilty, accused or condemned ! But the badness of the diet, trying as it must be, even to the strongest constitution, is, perhaps, more supportable than the badness of the air; which, contaminated as it is at all times in the prison, by impure drains and other sources of pollution, becomes, under the oppressive heat of an Italian summer, a misery sufficient in itself to produce madness and suffocation. In the segreta, the prisoners are allowed to be shaved once a fortnight, and, the operation being performed outside the entry of the cell, it is eagerly anticipated by them, as affording them their only opportunity of inhaling for a few minutes a pure atmosphere. If any of them are indisposed, they are not allowed to see a medical man until the day after they have made their complaint; and a young man from Albano, in the month of August, 1851, was. suffered to expire on his bed of straw, in presence of his fellow-prisoners, without the smallest bodily aid or spiritual consolation, Indeed, the religious observances, on which the priests lay so much stress, when anything is to be accomplished by the outward display of them, seem to be thought no way necessary for unhappy captives shut out from every other solace; and even among the medical men that attend the prisons, there are more who are cruel enough, like Dr. Valeri, to insult the sufferings of their patients, than to sooth them, as the humane and honourable Dr. Bacelli does, by the language of condolence, and an attentive inquiry into their maladies.
In proportion as the keepers are careless and brutal, with respect to the comfort and health of their victims, they are ferocious and vindic-. tive in the exercise of the power put into their hands of punishing insubordination; by which term they almost exclusively understand any appeal made by a prisoner against the violence and injustice of the ruffians who may surround him. The modes of punishment which the keepers are allowed to use are the carolina, the stick, fetters (weight à discrétion), and segretino. The carolina is an instrument lately imported from Austria, resembling the stocks, in which the prisoner is fastened, whilst he receives a certain number of blows from a stick, according to the humour in which the keeper may find himself at the moment of pronouncing the sentence. A prisoner, who was condemned by the despotic will of one of these monsters to receive fifty blows every day, expired under the forty-fifth, on the second application,
It is to the Austrians that Italy is indebted for the introduction of the stick, as an instru
ment of punishment; and in their merciless hands it frequently becomes the instrument of what an English jury would bring in wilful murder, as a certain number of blows are allowed to be given across the stomach, which is almost inevitable death. The Italians were horrified at a ferocity they had never before witnessed, and in some cases the display of it led to the most tragical results. One instance may suffice, though many might be given. A respectable man, a widower, at Forli, by trade a shoemaker, had an only child, a boy thirteen years of age, who, besides being the delight of his father's humble dwelling, industriously assisted him in his business. One day, the boy was walking along the road, accompanied by his little dog, when he unfortunately met an Austrian officer, who was taking an airing on horseback, and who was likewise accompanied by a dog, but of much larger breed; the big dog flew ferociously upon the little one, and the poor boy, alarmed at the peril of his canine friend, seized some stones, and struck the assailant so courageously and repeatedly over the head, as to kill him on the spot. The officer, enraged at this termination of a combat which he had before looked upon with considerable satisfaction, immediately had the boy seized, and condemned him to receive twenty-five strokes of the bastinado. It was urged to him that the youth, being slender and delicate, might not be able to sustain so severe a punishment; but he would hear of no mitigation of it, and the poor child expired under the seventeenth blow. The wretched father, frantic at the intelligence of his child's death, rushed the next morning into the coffee-house where the Austrian officer was composedly taking his breakfast, and stabbed him with seventeen wounds, leaving him lifeless, and himself quitting the horror-stricken circle without any one making an effort to detain him.
Nor is this cruel and degrading punishment confined to the humbler classes; the most respectable members of the community are not secure from it. A short time ago, a party, seventy-five in number, of the principal citizens of Jesi, a place we have already mentioned as rejoicing in Cardinal Cesari for its bishop, wished, in compliance, we would take the liberty of suggesting, with the most sacred inborn feelings of the human breast, to solemnize the anniversary of the day on which they had to mourn the fall of many of their nearest and dearest relatives and friends on the field of battle, in the vain endeavour to preserve the precious gift of liberty to their country, at the expense of their blood. These citizens, aware
of the despotic tendency and hypocritical hollowness of their governors, would not give them a plea for persecution, by celebrating a mass for the souls of those dauntless heroes,
6 - who sank to rest, By all their country's wishes blest," though that very mass for the defunct, if paid for, is held out by the priests as the surest release from purgatory, and passport to the gates of paradise; they therefore limited the expression of their living regrets and hallowed remembrance to the simple insignia of a black scarf. Would it be believed by Englishmen, by any one possessing a spark of human sympathy, that this mere outward sign,
“ The show and semblance
Of their grief as Hamlet would express it, should be construed by the self-installed ministers of a religion honoured by the precious tears of its Omnipotent Founder himself, who, in his human garb, sympathising with human sorrows, wept with the weeping sisters of Lazarus dead, though, in his omniscience, he knew that he should restore the same Lazarus to life, ere these precious tears upon his own sacred cheek were dried--would it be believed that this mere outward sign of mourning, adopted in all classes of civilized society, as the natural expression of an interior sense of deprivation and regret, should be construed by these same ministers of " peace and good-will towards men” into a crime, subjecting those guilty of it to imprisonment and the stick! Yet so it was. Had but our readers seen, as we did, one of the most gifted, the most eloquent of Italian exiles in our land of refuge, turn pale, when he was apprised of this horrible treatment of his countrymen, they would have joined, as we did, in the exclamation, “not loud but deep,"
“Bastonáre i Italiani! ma il giorno verrá /”
But we must return to the prisons. The punishment of the stick is usually inflicted in the court-yard, in sight of the other prisoners ; Farini had put a stop to this abuse; since the restoration, however, of the priestly régime, it also has been restored, with more inhumanity than ever. After being thus beaten, almost to à mummy, at the pleasure of the keeper, the miserable prisoner is laden with fetters, sometimes to the weight of eighty pounds, and thrust into the hole called the segretino, where he is left to his fate. Last summer, an unhappy wretch in this condition, smarting under his lacerations, tortured by
thirst, and tormented by fever, shouted in vain vered with filth and vermin-an inevitable for water, from an hour after dark until six in consequence in an Italian prison—the unhappy the morning, when, happily for him, he was father was so agonized at the sight, that he found dead upon the floor of his cell! And fell to the ground in an apoplectic fit, to the where, among the thousand priests of Rome, horror of the son, and bewildered terror of his where was his ghostly comforter? his spiritual mother and sisters, whose shrieks and cries adviser ? without whom the death-bed of the for help filled the air. At that moment, Evanrich man is considered neither holy nor safe! gelisti, as naturally attracted by sounds of diswhere the disciple of Christ, who, in visiting tress as the tiger by the scent of blood, came " the sick and in prison," is considered to visit to the spot, and instantly ordered the young his Blessed Master, who graciously identifies man back to his cell, and the father to be himself with all who are in suffering and dragged into the streets; which he actually sorrow!
was, in his unconscious and apparently lifeless The prisons termed Alla Larga, or at large, state, by the feet ; and we state this upon the are certainly more humanely organized, espe information of a gentleman of the highest cially the new ones of Monte Citorio, the pri respectability in Rome, and of considerable soners in them being allowed to receive clothes official importance, who was an eye-witness of and money from their relatives and friends, but | the fact. Signor Evangelisti then turned it is on the condition of bribing their keepers round to the distracted females, and told them heavily; and the cells are subject to a very they “must not stay there to act their farces," unhealthy degree of humidity.
and actually threatened them with personal The prison of San Michele, which occupies violence, if they did not instantly depart. no inconsiderable part of that immense build Shortly after, this man, who, as chancellor of ing, is solely devoted to political prisoners, and the Sacra Consulta, and secretary of the Counis at this time as full as it can hold. The cil of Censure, had caused misery and death to keeper is one of the most ruffianly fellows in hundreds, himself fell, under the stroke of an Rome, and the prisoners are treated with the assassin. most atrocious barbarity — nay, even their We now come to the places of confinement relatives and friends, anybody, in short, con for convicts, of which the principal is the nected with them, who may present themselves Carcere de Termini, intended originally solely at the gate, in the hope of seeing or procuring for galley-slaves, but into which the uncontidings of them, are subjected to every insult demned are often thrust, at the tyrannical that the cruelty of a bad heart, joined to “the caprice of the authorities, as was the case with insolence of office," can suggest. One instance our unhappy countryman, Edward Murray, may suffice of the behaviour which is suffered who, in a letter which he was fortunate on these occasions, and we will select it from enough to get conveyed from his prison, in many of a similar nature that occurred last Ancona, to this country, thus describes his year, when Signor Marco Evangelisti was situation at the time : superintendent of the prison. A young man,
“ The epoch of my judgment now approaching, of the name of Apollonj, the son of a respect
Mr. Moore advised me to go to Rome, in order to able advocate, was seized, on some political go in person before my judges, and he obtained pretext, and dragged to the prison of San that for me. Michele, where he languished week after week,
“Fresh sufferings were continually added to the month after month, denied any communication
old ones. Often they refused to give me some
wood, under pretence there was no order from the with his family. His father, an aged man, government. When at Spoleto, the chief of the repeatedly petitioned Evangelisti for leave to gendarmerie--aman of the most ferocious temper see him, but was always sternly refused; at
loaded my hands and my feet with heavy iron chains.
When in Rome, I was confined in the horrible length, after eight months, he took courage to
galley of Termini. While still uncondemned, had address Monsignor Giannagi, who, more mer they the right to stamp a mark of infamy on my ciful, granted him permission to pay the young name, associating my existence to that of robbers man a visit, accompanied by his wife and
and murderers! My process had been completed daughters. They accordingly set out for the
a year ago ; since a year I had no more been kept
up in a solitary dungeon, but in a common prison. prison; but when they arrived there, they
Consequently, according to what laws could they were most brutally received by the keeper and shut me up again in so horrible a prison, or, I his agents, and some time elapsed before the should rather say, in so horrible a grave? For
such it was. Avery damp-looking place, seven prisoner was allowed to be brought out. At
feet long, and four wide ; unwholesome, and comlast he came ; but when he stood before them,
pletely dark; no breath of air penetrating into it, pale, emaciated, loaded with fetters, and co- | for there was no window at all. My physician de