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family is at the kirk and who is not, and just still for a single moment. Also, Annie Orme had to take a kindly look of them all. So it hap hidden her face low down in her hands, and I pened, being busy looking at all the strange could feel by the motion of her, being close to folk, I never glanced up at the pulpit at all, my side, that she was crying with all her till the psalm was given out, and then I had to | might. But I could not say a word-I could hurry to find the place in a very small-printed not do a single thing, but sit with my eyes Psalm-book; besides, I was particularly taken staring wide open upon Robbie Scott. up with Annie Orme, who let fall her Bible a Bless me, to think of that-to think of that! dozen times, I am sure, if she did it once, and But bye and bye I noticed that his voice was grew red and white, and put up her hand shaking, and I steadied myself as well as I kerchief to her face, till I grew very anxious, could, that the poor lad might not lose his forand thought she was ill; I asked her, and titude by looking upon us; I have no doubt it said, I would go home with her, if she liked ; was a grand sermon-not the least doubt-but but Annie answered, “No, no," and let fall what it was about at this moment I am not her book again. So immediately it came into prepared to say. my head, that may be she had seen Robbie in “Do you ken the minister, Miss Sinclair," the church, and I looked round and round, and said Miss Rosie Clephane, bending over to my lost my own place, and missed the psalm-sing sister, when the blessing was said; "did he no ing, hunting through the kirk for him; but I do grand ? That's our student lad I was telling could see him nowhere.

you about-for the Presbytery only licensed What blind inconsiderate mortals we are him last week.” after all; I was within half-an-hour of what I looked at Lexie, and Lexie looked at me made my heart stir with thanksgiving, and I never one of us said a word ; but at last Lexie knew it not.

gave a bit short laugh, and rose up and went All through the prayer I was concerned right away ; I saw she thought shame. about Annie; I scarcely could attend to it for my trouble about her, which was a great sin in me. So we sat down again, and I was

CHAPTER XIII. looking into Annie's face once more, and ask The minister came after us immediately ing if she were unwell, when I heard the click from the church, Sabbath-day as it was. of Lexie's glasses-Lexie is very short-sighted " Annie Orme,” said my sister, “ your aunt -as she put them on to look up at the minis Rechie and me are two old fools. I make no ter, and wait for the text. But before there hesitation in saying that-but I am not a dour was a word of the text-you may think how I person--nobody can blame me with such a started, both my heart and me, when Lexie spirit; so if your aunt Rechie does not object, suddenly threw up her arms, and gave a cry, Annie, we'll ask this young man to stay to his which made me think she had fainted. I dinner." started from Annie, and turned to my sister, “ Me, Lexie!” said I. who was on my other side. “ Are you ill, As if they did not both know that I would Lexie ?” whispered I, and there was great never oppose! So we put the minister oppodrops hanging on my brow with fear.

site Annie at the table, and I took the head, * Rechie Sinclair, I'm a fuil," said my and Lexie took the foot, and thus we had our sister, and she panted for her breath. “Look Sabbath-day's dinner in Edinburgh. If any up yonder-up yonder, ye foolish person, I tell body had told me, three hours before, that ye-its Robbie, from the Butterbraes!”

Robbie would dine with us that day, I should I looked up; what did I see ? past the long have laughed it to scorn ; yet, here he was, pulpit stairs, past the precentor's desk—there, and no one in the room more taken with him with his minister's gown upon him, and his than Lexie Sinclair, her very self. fine blacks and white neckcloth, bending his So he told us all his story. It was true his head over the big Bible, in the very pulpit father was a very poor man, with a poor small itself, was the same Robbie that took off his moorland-farm in the south country, no better hat to me on Lasswade-bridge, and that we did than an East Lothian hind; but Lexie never not think good enough for Annie Orme!

seemed to heed that, though Mr. Robert told I sat there with my mouth open and my us plain. The poor lad said, too, that he lived eyes-I could not believe my very sight--and for his first session on little more than five at the same time I was half distracted with pounds; that his second he got some teaching; the constant click of Lexie's glasses, as she put | and that ever since he had been keeping himthem on and took them off, and did not rest | self in the hardest way, though principally by

VOL. I. N. S.

teaching, till the last summer, when his father Still—but I would have been disappointed was in want himself, owing to an ailment among if she had not been married-still I am very his cattle, and he was driven to great straits, | loth to let her go away; and I think, may-be, and had to hire with Mr. Lait, of Butterbraes. the best plan of all would have been to let

“ A little vulgar pride stood in my way, no well alone, and keep her beside us, and have doubt," said Mr. Robert, with a smile, “but it her aye Annie Orme. was necessity, and I did it. There is no It is too late for that now, for she is sitting time of my life I shall regret less, Miss Lexie; at the window with Lexie making her wedfor when I drove the Butterbraes cart, I had ding gown, which my sister and me bought liberty sometimes to walk by the Esk water out of Annie's knowledge, in Edinburgh, last and you will let me carry, not the remembrance Monday. And Lexie herself can almost come only, but the companion of these walks with the length of laughing now about the license, me all my life-will you, Miss Lexie?”. and is as proud of the young man as can be.

And Lexie said afterwards to me, “how And only yesterday, when we went up to Wincould I, if I had been ever so inclined, have dlestrae to see Mrs. Braird, who, poor woman, said . No,' to a minister ?”

is anything but pleased with Phemie Mouter So he is to get our Annie ; and I am sure I for a daughter-in-law, I smiled within myself am very glad and very well pleased, and proud at the change in Lexie-for whereas, a short of him, for a fine looking young man, not to say time ago, she would have been overcome with a minister. There is already some chance of shame at the very mention of Robert Scott as him getting a kirk very soon, and whenever a match for Annie Orme; now she began of he is placed they are to be married; but though her own accord to tell Windlestrae and his wife I am very glad of so suitable a man for Annie, | the whole story, and all about “ the grand and that she will not need to sew all her life, sermon (I am sure she never heard a word of like us, but will be well taken care of and it any more than myself) which Mr. Robert provided for, and have a higher place in this preached in Edinburgh to Rechie, and Annie world than the like of us

| Orme, and me!"

BIRDS IN CAPTIVITY.*

THE BULFINCII.

(Loxia Pyrrhula.)
“ His head of glossy jet I spy,

His downy breast of softest red."
I DIVIDE this subject into two parts--the
educated and the untaught bird. The impe-
rative necessity for adhering to the treatment
pursued by the German instructors of these
docile creatures would alarm an amateur, satis-
fied to have a bulfinch in its natural and un-
educated state. I am fully convinced that,
were our artizans to give the same meed of care
as the patient professor of “ Cher-Hessen,"
“Fulda," and the “Vogelsburg," our native
birds would equal, if not rival, those of the
“ Faderland,” our melodies being more simple
and familiar ; the natural notes are pleasing
only as being illustrative of a cheerful, loving
temperament—their huskiness conveying an
idea of an effort to do better.

Naturalists have a variety of opinions as to the migration of these birds : I am inclined to

believe that if, with us, it is a permanent resi-
dent, it, nevertheless, is more gregarious than
is comprehended by a small family party, and
that they change their quarters. It is only in
the south that the bulfinch is pronounced to
be a bird of passage, and I have reason to
believe that it is a mere supposition, the result
of finding these birds in every European state
and abounding in Russia and Sweden. This
confirms my opinion, that the delicacy of the
German birds is the effect of man's treatment,
I doubt that the “black bulfinch” is aught but
a victim to bad feeding; the “ white bulfinch"
I should not pronounce to be so problematical,
if the specimens said to be in the “ Leverian
Museum" had been bred in the house, as these
birds pair with canaries; and the bird called
“ the London mule" (the produce of goldfinch
and canary) is nearly white; besides, I have
seen a bird called " the white blackbird "---(the
term rather paradoxical !) The food for bul-
finches caught in a wild state (id. est. the
dunces) should be the same as I have laid down
for the first and second class feeders, also apple
blossom fruit: insects they seek when on the

----

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* Continued from page 99.

wing, but in confinement they are not necessary; larch-buds and green food making the nearest approach to its natural food; bearing in recollection, that for ten months in the year this bird frequents the woods, and approaches the gardens and orchards only when the buds are full of the embryo blossoms. In May, they return to the hedges and sloe-blossoms, and, by a provision of nature, build about June-later than the mere seed-eating birds. Baths and sand wind up this treatment: the latter is absolutely required, as these birds are inclined to grow fat, and are greedy. Quartz has been found in small particles in their crops. Hempseed only to be allowed as a treat-a few grains a week; flax, canary, and rape to form the standard food.

I now begin the more important theme, and having bought the German piping bulfinches, and had instruction from the dealer, I shall give the substance of the lessons received, as also my experience of their efficacy.

The first food given in Germany, where the art of rearing nestlings is understood, is egg and “sweet summer rapeseed :" the seed is steeped in boiling water, and then washed, so that the husk comes off; after this, a very little seed is mixed with the egg, and with this paste the birds are fed every two hours ; each succeeding day a little more seed is added to the egg, and thus the bird becomes at last used to the rapeseed.

Their mode of instruction may be acceptable to my readers. “ After the birds have been at home four or five days, the teacher whistles to them, three times a day, the tune which they are to learn; and that which they have not learned when February comes, they will never learn at all. About this time they are all sold to the bird-dealers, and by them brought to England, America, and other countries, where they are disposed of at a high price : even in Germany, a good piping bulfinch is sold for eight or ten louis d'or (about nine pounds sterling)."

The great objection to the importation of a number of valuable birds together is, that they are apt to become “confused" in the airs learned, and to take from one another the first or second part of a tune-some of the travellers singing overmuch en route, while others forget the lesson taught; but if the birds have been well instructed, they will resume their own tune or tunes, when separated from the many. At times, a bird can only remember the call-note : a tune may be whistled to it, always in the same key, and liking to sing, and its original tune having been forgotten, it will take to the new one; but it is only the experienced

teachers of Germany who will be able to instruct in a new air. After moulting, these birds are frequently distressed, and others are enraged, because their attempts to sing are abortive: in such case, let their health be attended to, and they must be kept warm and quiet, when it is more than probable their voices will come round in a natural way. Any impatience on the part of the possessor will irritate a species that nature, or, what is more likely, training, has made irritable; but when the bird begins his engaging tricks, and looks cheerful, then assistance, by whistling in the same key to which he had been accustomed, may be afforded. It must be remembered that the Germans rear their bulfinches in rooms heated by stoves, and that hoarseness is generally the consequence of their first winter in Britain.

In a single instance I was not successful. My room was not kept sufficiently warm : the bird moulted badly the first season, and forgot his tunes; he partially resumed them in summer, and seemed to be in good health when in my large aviary cage, to which I removed him from his own, for exercise; the second moult he died. I have known these Germans to be in excellent song for years, where windows were seldom opened; and I judge that, being removed from the close rooms of artizans, the first winter is their trial ; once acclimatised, they do well. A late authority mentions an instance of a piping bulfinch having lived in a cage twenty years; and the writer (Mr. Thompson) adds, that the age when bought is unknown ; but it is easy to know by the feet of a bird, and by other signs, if it be an old one.

Their food should be summer rape, called “ sweet summer seed," a little canary, and flax. It is difficult to obtain it: as a substitute, turnip-seed may be given, it is more expensive, but the rape sometimes sold is strong and bitter. But with us there is no seed called summer rape. Not more than five or six grains of hemp weekly, this will be sufficient, and make them tame; they take it off the tongue; also the pips of apples, green food-especially chickweed and salad-apple-blossoms, larch-tops, a cherry, and a fig. The fewer delicacies the better, as these birds are inclined to apoplexy. It is recommended to put a bit of rusty iron in the drinking vessel, if the bird becomes hoarse; also about the size of a nut of manna, given occasionally in the same vehicle, improves the voice. I have never found manna to cure a bird when ill, but it relieves one slightly ailing. For the cure of fits, dip the bird into cold water, and put him then in a warm and quiet

place. For this attack, known by the bird out the necessity of steady care to preserve falling down, spreading the wings, and open health and song-little can be done to cure the ing the beak, a spider may be afterwards consequences of neglect. The trained bulfinch given. Some add“ a bit of pork," "a sprig of is a delightful companion, he bows, hops on the wormwood,” but I did not find the bird picked table, sings at command, and is susceptible of at either ; and as a general remark, I would the strongest attachment; if slighted, he say that simple remedies only have any chance, grieves or sulks, and fits frequently follow a beyond them you only increase suffering

fright. I prefer the bird that has but one tune, Although this species is supposed to be in for in more than one instance I have known sectivorous, I have seldom found them to take them to forget, or confuse the march and the with the avidity of other loxias a meal-worm waltz, that so delighted the hearers in the or raw meat, both of which are good when former season, and two “pipers” in the same ailing. I gave about the size of a nut of room will cause confusion and forgetfulness; bread, upon which cold boiled milk had been in any case, two birds of the same kind should poured, at least twice a week, as I made a rule never see each other. A thrush has been known to do to all my birds. One reason is, that it is never to have sung because another was present. the best remedy against the huskiness produced The price of a good taught bulfinch is from by constantly eating dried seeds, and also that | three to four guineas. There is an indescriI found birds prefer the milk so given to it bable charm in the melody of these pretty beby itself; and milk being one of our best ings, and their desire to attract the attention remedies, birds unaccustomed to take it when in of those they are attached to, and they are health, will not touch it when ill. I also scrape exclusive and constant. As I regret that any raw beef, and mix it with the yolk of a hard bird is in confinement, and know that no beneboiled egg, on which a few drops of water have volent feeling will emancipate the whole class; been poured, and all made into a paste, and also that foreign birds cannot be given their given quite fresh, on alternate days, with the freedom, I try to make mine feel less of the above. When this paste (the nightingale's irksomeness of captivity, by allowing them at food) was provided, I added a vessel of cold times, when perfectly safe from accident, to fly boiled milk-provisions indispensable before in and out of their cages; it is the careless and during the season of moulting, and the neglect of persons not closing their doors to first winter's trial of our variable climate. shut out the little toddling feet of children, the

The possessor of a bird who will take an in- | gaucheries of servants, and the indifference of terest in his well-doing, need hardly be re casual visitors, together with the undesired atminded to observe if the ailing favourite will tentions of grimalkin, that cause so many fatal take the milk. I have known it prescribed ends to favourites." I say less about fire“ to withdraw the water vessel.” The sufferer places, for, with two exceptions (a nonpareil sulked, obstinately avoided the milk (perhaps and a golden oriole), I found that birds, accusit had become sour), and must have died, if the tomed to leave their cages, avoided the fire; water had not been replaced; this supports my still it is a dangerous practice to neglect placing argument, that it is better to accustom the a guard, or to forget that a large water ewer or birds to that which they will really like. basin may lose you your favourite also. When

All obstructions in the voice proceed from the forms of an early greeting and good will cold ; when the sufferer makes the continual had been gone through, “Pop" (my pet bulsound of tjib-tjib,the Germans use a warm finch) ranged the breakfast-table, and took a bath, by which I have seen two birds killed ; bath, cold or tepid, according to season ; if I and I believe, as I before tried to impress upon left the room, he watched the door, and premy readers, that all unnatural remedies frigh pared his call-note; he hopped to meet me ten so delicate a creature, and hasten its death. when I entered, and poured forth his airs, Again, I advise the prevention of cold, given looking saucy all the while, for no one else principally by draughts of air. This bird likes would he sing “at command." I remarked a cheerful cage; I found the bell shape the the fondness of these accomplished birds for best, placed in a cheerful and yet warm situa hats, by which I conclude some associationtion. It may seem strange to say, but it is a shall we call it memory ?-was connected with fact, that these birds, and others also, require early lessons. On one occasion for I seek all occasional change of air; about the pairing that can take me within the sounds of melody, season, I restored one of mine to health by a | sweeter to me than that of a prima donna-1 country visit. Experience has taught me that I saw a ludicrous, and, to the bird-dealer, & the early training of the taught bulfinch points rather inconvenient illustration of a piping

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bulfinch's fondness for that very ungraceful Another, in Edinburgh, not only sung deportion of man's attire. I accompanied a lady lightfully, but performed several curious tricks. to Schinge's rooms, and he had one choice and When its mistress was at work, it flew away high-priced bird exhibited the last; this he, with her needle; or if she was writing, it tried with merchant-like acumen, had removed to his | to carry off her quill; sometimes a hempseed " family apartment," redolent of onions and or two was put into an ivory box, the top being German cookery, n'importe, there perched lightly laid on, the bulfinch darted towards it, “bully," indifferent to all objectionable and dexterously overturning the lid, hovered matter, and heedless of fastidiousness as we over the open box, from which he picked out were, when we encountered his bright black the seed, and flew off without alighting. eye, he did not obey the sign (the waving of I taught mine, also a canary, (and a nonhis master's head), a hempseed offered and ac pareil, by means of meal-worms,) to do the cepted, still silent; the poor man looked dis same, even taking seed from my half closed tressed, but conscious, while, in his broken hand. English, he said the words “confoosed," One more instance, and I have done. A " sulky.” Our anxiety made us look patient lady bought a bulfinch from a French prisoner, and amiable, another trial-there the culprit the poor exile had painted the cage of his little

captive like a prison, and the bird drew up despair, the owner of the contumacious beauty two little buckets, suspended by a gilt chain, one clapped on his hat, with “ dere now," closely re containing seed, and the other water. This sembling poor Hood's "wooden d-n," and, bulfinch was extremely tame, and though bred forthwith, after two or three preparatory calls, in the woods of Greenilaw, (near Edinburgh,) it bully threw himself, con amore, into his three whistled a variety of troubadour songs.. melodies--to call them either “flute-like," or I quote the last anecdote, on account of the " bird-like” sounds, would be to wrong the ex proof it affords of the teachable nature of this quisite sweetness of the notes—the more extra bird, but I enter a protest against training ordinary that the natural tone of the bird birds with buckets, for reasons which I shall cannot be called a song. I need scarcely add give more fully under the head of the goldfinch. that, after the extorted confession of this monomania on the part of Der Gimpel oder Dompfaffe, my friend not being a Welshwoman, or

THE CARDINAL GROSBEAK. an admirer of innovations, and with a prudent conviction that the owner of a hat could not be

(Loxia Cardinalis) ever at hand when she desired a waltz from The appearance of this beautiful bird is the cage, declined the purchase. I have often more familiar to our cages than his treatment thought over this, and several instances of is understood, which should be simple but similar associations, with surprise, for the varied. Of a brilliant colour and a hardy German miner and artizan never has, I believe, nature, he is equally desirable as an inmate of adopted any head-covering except a cap. an aviary ; fierce and destructive to his own

To prove that the bulfinch is fully entitled, species, he never molests even the smallest by his docility, his excellent memory, and his specimen of any other. The female is of a soft social habits, to rank in the collection of the mouse-brown colour, tinged with red, the crest amateur as a first-rate favourite, I give the (like that of the male bird) forms a point when following anecdotes, illustrative of his just raised; she is graceful and lively, and, unlike claims to favouritism, premising that the term hen-birds, sings as well as her mate; the notes " piping bulfinch" always means a taught bird. are softer, but less continuous. The male-bird

One which a lady (north of the Tay) bought has been known to evince much jealousy at the of a German bird-dealer, because of the excel vocal powers of his partner, and I have witlence of its song, was no sooner in her posses nessed, with my own pair, serious matrimonial sion than he became entirely mute, and bickerings, requiring a total separation, not though apparently in perfect health, neither only from cages, but from the same room, when voice nor instrument could induce it to sing, at liberty to range about. The Virginia nightA Hanoverian officer, who happened to be pre ingale is of the rare instances of foreign birds sent, whistled several waltzes, but in vain. pairing in confinement. The late Earl of Bully was still silent; at last the Hanoverian Derby had a "residence" prepared for these recollected an air he had heard a bird-dealer royal visitors, and succeeded in their naturalising in Germany, and whistling the first bar, zation. I am also aware of a pair having the bird instantly finished it.

| hatched, and brought out their young in a

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