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laws of natural production. Writers on the Some of the most curious antiquarian regeology of this district inform us, that the mains in Cornwall are the numerous blocks of extent of many of the metalliferous veins is stone placed either in lines or in circles, and unknown, as well as the depth to which they which would seem to have a druidical origin, extend: no miner has yet seen the end or while some writers suppose them to be monubottom of a vein. Their width also varies mental. Near Liskeard, for instance, are much, “ from the thickness of a sheet of paper three circles, tolerably close to each other, to thirty feet," but they are commonly found formed originally by erect stones placed at one to three feet thick. The ores of copper or some distance; several of the stones have been tin do not often occur together in the same carried away, and others thrown down. The vein, at any very great depth. If tin be first superstition of the people has attached to these discovered, it sometimes disappears after sink. remains a legend that they were once men, ing about one hundred feet, and is succeeded | who were transformed into stones, as a punishby copper ; but if copper be discovered first, ment for engaging in the sport of hurling on it is rarely, if ever, succeeded by tin. It is the Sabbath, and hence they have acquired the seldom that either ore is found nearer to the epithet of "the hurlers." A similar story is surface than eighty or a hundred feet; and if | related of another heap in the parish of a copper vein meets one of tin, the former usually St. Buryan, where nineteen girls are said to passes through the latter, and "heaves it out | have been converted into as many blocks of of its course."
stone, for dancing on the Sabbath-day. It was probably owing to the mineral wealth The introduction of an engraving like that of this county, which, commercially, was of from Mr. Creswick's picture of “ St. Mawes,” so great value, that Cornwall had peculiar affords an appropriate opportunity for making rights of its own, and a jurisdiction indepen a few observations of a general character upon dent of other parts of the kingdom. Edward the country which the artist has visited; and the Black Prince, was created Duke of Corn especially so, when the immediate locality wall in 1337, and an act of parliament settled presents no very interesting topic for descripthe title on the eldest son of the kings of Eng tion. St. Mawes stands on the southern side land in perpetuity. The immediate govern of the county, on an arm of the Carrick-road, ment of the county is vested in the Duke, who an inlet of the sea on which Falmouth is appoints his chancellor, attorney-general, soli placed. The town, which up to the passing of citor-general, sheriffs, and his court of ex the reform act, returned two member to parchequer. At the present time, and until the liament, is a miserable little place, consisting Prince of Wales becomes of age, his Royal of one street only, built under a hill by the Highness Prince Albert acts for him. The sea, and containing a few houses inhabited by revenues attached to the dukedom, which fishermen. It had neither church nor chapel arise from the duty on tin, the rents of till about forty years since, when one was manors, and various other sources, amounted erected by the late Marquis of Buckingham. some few years since to upwards of twenty The castle was built by Henry VIII., it defends thousand pounds annually. The miners claim Falmouth on the east side, as the larger fort to be exempt from all jurisdiction but that of Pendennis does on the west. Mr. Creswick of the “stannary," or mining courts, except in has selected the most picturesque point, to show cases where “ land, life, or limb” are concerned. | the peculiar features of the scene.
THE CRYSTAL PALACE,
AT PENGE PARK.
“The Crystal Palace"--we like better its old name, simply because the Crystal Palace was “the palace of the people,” and because the prestige of its old name is something so dear to our memories, that we would not have it changed. It was “ the people's palace” from the first-consecrated to them, and for them, by their Queen ; and we believe, that, when
transplanted to another soil, it will flourish, "like a green bay tree," sacred to utility as well as to enjoyment.
There are, of course, many who protested against its removal, many who objected to its distance, and now many who gravely prophesy that “it will not succeed," that it will not be patronized, that it is too far from town, that the west-end people cannot get to it, that- | below the summit of the hill; but the great that-in short, it is something that never was magician, Sir Joseph Paxton, has determined before, and therefore cannot prosper. We that one of the glass wings of Crystal Palace the differ from these objectors. We believe, Second shall shelter the railway terminus, so if the plans are carried out, that the struc that visitors will descend from the carriages in ture itself will be a great improvement on the palace itself! This is only one of the the old edifice, presenting three transepts wonders promised by this very extraordinary instead of one, and an arched nave. The fall man, to whom the word " impossible" suggests of the ground on one side has led to a clever “something to be overcome." It will be highly arrangement of the building, with deep re interesting to those upon whom the beautiful cesses in the ends of the transepts, and an country, viewed from Penge-park, on the 5th open corridor, the whole length of the inter of August, 1852, burst so unexpectedly, to see mediate parts, containing sculpture. Within, the change promised by the 1st of May, 1853. there will be courts fitted up to illustrate the Terrace-gardens, adorned by fountains and architecture of the various periods of the statuary; jets, rivalling “the Emperor," at world's history, including an Egyptian, Gre Chatsworth; cascades; fountains; baths of cian, Roman, Byzantine, Alhambraic, Me sea-water, renewed by each flowing tide, and diæval, Renaissance, and Elizabethan court, conveyed in pipes across the country; the each under the direction of competent men. brightness and magnificence of the erection If, as we have said, these plans are carried out itself; the profusion of hardy and half-hardy as proposed, the new Crystal Palace will be plants; Loddige's magnificent collection of the most extraordinary structure in the world; palms; all these, and a thousand other things and if so, it will not lack patronage. As to of beauty" and of interest, congregated upon, the distance, the company will arrange so as to and crowning, that glorious Kentish valley! obviate that objection before it is ready to re The ceremony of the 5th of August was as ceive the public; it will be a matter of time,
simple as the occasion was grand. Flags of not of distance. « The west-end people" will all nations were unfurled upon their lofty be able to get to it with much more ease and staves, enclosing a vast area, sloping down the rapidity, and at less expense, than the Pari- | hill; and around this, hundreds of ladies, in sians incur in their transit from Paris to Ver every variety of brilliant summer costume, sailles. We drove, in a one-horse “fly," from were seated. The band of the Coldstreams on Waterloo-bridge through Camberwell and Dul- the hill, and the Artillery band in the valley, wich in about three-quarters of an hour; and floated the air with music. Within the circle the inhabitants of Belgravia would find the was a gigantic flag-staff, upon the top of which route much shorter by crossing over Vauxhall the flag of England was closely furled. Beside bridge. Nothing can be more delicious than the this, the pillar was slung, ready, at a given drive, after you escape from “ mere London." moment, to drop into its socket. Soon after Dulwich, with its fine old college, its beautiful half-past two, the procession advanced. Six collection of pictures, its magnificent trees, its workmen, bearing a large and handsome bandeep-plashy pools, its quaint-garlanded houses, ner, inscribed, “Success to the Palace of the --is well worthy a pilgrimage, and is only People,” were followed by Mr. Laing, M.P. three-quarters of a mile from the site of the vast (the chairman of the Crystal Palace Company), undertaking, which commands a panorama of Mr. F. Fuller, and the other directors. The one of the richest landscapes in England. * column was immediately raised, and inserted At present, the railway station is 200 feet in its socket, three young lads assisting at this
operation. * “The site chosen for the re-erection of the
When this was completed, the British Crystal Palace is an irregular parallelogram of 300
flag slowly and gracefully unfurled, and the acres, extending from the Brighton railway, where
bands burst into that anthem which creates it has a frontage of 1,300 feet; between the Syden fresh enthusiasm every time it is performed. ham and the Anerley stations, to the road which When the burst of loyalty had subsided, the borders the top of Dulwich-wood, where it has a frontage towards the road of 3,000 feet. The fall
chairman spoke, not long, but well, saying a from this point to the Brighton railway is 200 feet.
great deal in a few words, and explaining It was at once felt that the only position for the what the intentions and hopes of the company new building was on the summit of this hill, and which had planned this wonderful erection immediately adjoining the road. The building, placed in this commanding position, will be visible
were. When this was concluded, the feelings from London on the one side, and from a vast
of the assembly took another direction, and a extent of country on the other.”- The Times.
rush was made to the refreshment tent, where
tables were prepared for 600 people, and all multitudes who flocked to imbibe beauty and was on a scale of princely magnificence.
instruction from its contents. The recreation Mr. Laing, Mr. Scott Russell, and Sir Jo afforded by Sir Joseph Paxton's plan is purely seph Paxton spoke to the several toasts, and intellectual; and no mis-called “ refreshment,” soon after, the assembly broke up; though tending to excite the passions and weaken the many seemed disposed to linger around the judgment, should be sanctioned by the complans and drawings, which were displayed in pany. We cannot express ourselves too another tent, and to enjoy what, to the London strongly on this point, when we say, that if citizen, was as the gush of pure mountain air. | the sale of intoxicating fluids is permitted
So far, this great undertaking is launched within the enclosures of Penge-park, a little on its way, and as we have faith in the brains time will see it degenerate into a daylight which conceived, and the hands that can Vauxhall, from which the more respectable execute, we believe it will be brought to a classes will be obliged to withdraw. What glorious termination. But there are two pro parents could take their children for amusepositions connected with the under-current of ment, or instruction, to a place where their enthis mighty whole, which we cannot but joyment would have a chance of being deregard with anxiety: the first is, as to the stroyed by the intoxication, or “ excitement," grounds being entirely, and the palace par- of that class of men who kill time with cigars, tially, open to the people on the Sabbath-day. and their almost invariable accompaniments ? We know the arguments for, but we know the If the directors permit the sale of spirituous COMMAND against Sabbath-breaking, and we liquors, they degenerate into tavern-keepers. know how some say that Sabbath-breaking It is because we are deeply and earnestly consists in so and so, and others exclaim no, anxious for the success of this great under“not that, but this.” For ourselves we say, taking, that we dwell upon the two points upon that recreation is not Sabbath-breaking, but which must depend its popularity. A large pormerry-making is; and that money-making and tion of English mothers will desire to take their money-changing of all sorts is at open war with children to the Crystal Palace for instruction, a Sabbath peace. If Penge-park is to be open still larger, for amusement and health. The at all on Sunday, it should be as Hyde-park | patronage of the fashionable world will entirely and St. James' are simply as LUNGS for the depend upon the non-violation of their tastes, people; and for this there should be no and the patronage of the people's world upon charge ; if there is a charge, no matter how pleasure and instruction; they are learning small, it is, to all intents and purposes, Sun how to appreciate the beauties of nature and day-trading, and for this, as a christian people, of art, and have acquired, of late, much more we can offer no excuse. We cannot punish the instinctive knowledge of the graces, as well as tradesman who keeps his shop open for sales the proprieties of life, than the higher classes on Sabbath-days, and permit the Crystal Palace believe. Let us, moreover, not forget the very Company to charge for admission to their park | large number of the middle and humbler and gardens.
classes who repudiate the use of intoxicating Again, there should be no sale of any species drinks. of intoxicating fluid within the precincts of the The Crystal Palace will come before the Crystal Palace at any time. The restriction world as a great teacher, a great amalgamator, on this point at Crystal Palace the First in no l a combination of all that can be desired by way lessened the number of visitors. It pro the highest civilization—and a civilizer of the moted that peace, good order, and good be- uncivilized. One scene of inebriety would dehaviour, which so eminently distinguished the stroy the confidence of thousands.
Few books could have appeared at a more oppor- | Didron to the union of the nimbus and the aureole tune period than the present volume, and, although -an arrangement which, although somewhat artithe policy of translating a book before the original | ficial, is perhaps calculated to prevent some conis completed is, generally speaking, questionable, fusion. the information conveyed by the work of M. Didron Did our limits permit, it would be interesting to is too precious to be kept longer from the English trace the progress of these symbols, especially of reader. However, the first volume is complete in the nimbus, in their application and design-to itself, and does ample justice to the subjects enu. observe the comparative rapidity with which they merated in the title-page.
gained ground in the east, and its lavish application Every student of art is aware how minute and to all sorts of figures, until it sank into a mere how varying are the features by which the com decoration, apart from their deep figurative meanparative antiquity of its productions is measured. ing, and gradually fell into disuse. It is observed The beard of a Hercules, the arrangement of the by M. Didron that, “even on the vases procured hair in a female figure, and the most trifling change from China and Japan, which we see exposed for sale in the folds of a drapery, will oftentimes settle aj in old curiosity shops, we often find figures of persons question upon which we have no historical means of a secular character, adorned with the nimbus, of deciding, and teach us not only what concep and that it sometimes even surrounds the head of tion the ancients formed of particular objects, but those monsters of fantastic beasts which seem to how they gradually arrived at their perfect and growl at us from our brilliant porcelain, and bear artistic embodiment.
so strong a resemblance to Christian devils, or the The author of the present publication is well open-mouthed gurgoyles of our cathedrals.” (p. 153.) known on the continent as an archæologist of In the west, on the contrary, the introduction of great learning and ability; and the present work these ornamental attributes was not only more supplies what was hitherto a desideratum in the gradual in its introduction, but was subjected to history of art-viz., a systematized description of more reverential limitations. M. Didron is inthose leading features of decoration, which are our clined to look upon the prevalence of light in the best guides in determining the real antiquity of eastern nations as the main reason of this, and his productions ascribed to the ingenuity of the middle remarks are so interesting, that we unhesitatingly ages.
transfer them to our pages. The great predominance of certain peculiar or “ That the nimbus is a luminous fluid has been naments, either in the architectural or illuminated abundantly proved. In the fifteenth century, with decorations of this period, and the modifications of us, this mystic head-tire, adorning the heads of the those ornaments-in which, however varied or saints, appears, in the monuments cited, like an examplified, the leading symbolical features are never pansion or unfolding of flamboyant rays, or the lost--forms a most interesting study, whether it be beams of a glowing sun. Now, every image, alleregarded as an antiquarian test, or as enabling us gory, symbol, or metaphor even, must be borrowed to judge of modern productions in a similar style, from the imagery, or, to speak more correctly, from by a just and authentic standard. The decorations the reality of nature. The ideal is transformed surrounding the head, or the whole person, and into the corporeal. I feel, therefore, convinced that sometimes whole groups of figures, whether circular, the nimbus was first attached to the heads of inteloval, triangular, or in any other form, are in all ligent and virtuous persons, from its analogy with cases modifications of the nimbus, the aureole, and that radiation which we may observe to be exhaled the glory. It may, however, be observed, that the by natural objects, in the most mature and energetic aureole is but an enlarged form of the nimbus, the periods of the year. In summer, during the hours nimbus a diminished aureole. Both denote glory, of noon-tide heat, everything radiates in the field; honour, and strength ; but the nimbus, whether all nature emits light; a brilliant vapour rises from radiating from, or encircling the head, is unques the earth, floating around the ears of corn, and the tionably the earliest in its origin. The story of a topmost branches of the trees. This flame plays flame encircling the head of a future hero is as old around the plants, like that which caressed the as the days of Virgil ; and, if we go into mytho hair of the youthful lülus, or the young Servius logical antiquity, we shall find an approach to the Tullius, or which descended on the heads of St. same idea in the representation of Apollo darting Henri and St. Léger. Every branch and flower, forth rays of light from his head. Nor is the Hindoo every group of trees, the summit of each distant mythology deficient in examples of the nimbus. hill, or rocky eminence, seems gilded by an aureole The glory, properly so called, is applied by M. -a kind of natural and universal nimbus. Now
what with us is but an accidental appearance
what in our climate is seen but rarely, at certain Christian Iconography; or, the History of Christian Art in the Middle Ages. By M. Didron, Sec. du Comite
seasons, and on certain days of intense heat, is in Historique des Arts et Monuments. Translated from the the east an habitual occurrence." French by E. J. Millington. Vol. I., comprising the History
. SOL. of the Nimbus, the Aureole, and the Glory; the History of the
But it must also be remembered, that the more
gloomy cast of mind which distinguished the wesFather, the Son, and the Holy Ghost. With numerous illustrations. London: H. G. Bohn.
tern nations, and the rigour of their devotional + Especially as the author of a most interesting work
character, was better calculated to preserve these under the tollowing title :- Manuel d'Iconographie Chre symbols to their more solemn uses, and to contemtienne, Grecque, et Latine, avec une introduction et des notes,
plate their intrinsic meaning and purpose, rather par M. Didron, de la Bibliotheque Royale, etc. Traduit du manuscrit Byzantin, Le guide de la Peinture, par le Dr.
than their subserviency to general ornament. Paul Durand. Paris : Imprimerie Royale, 1845.
Some idea of the importance of these symbols, in