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has been said, are mutually dependent upon sphere, from its extremely low temperature, is each other; the former could not exist, if the rapidly robbing the body of the heat it develatter were removed ; and if the animal races lopes, the supply of highly-carbonized foodwere by some dire cataclysm swept away, the which stands in the relation of fuel-must of vegetable kingdom would speedily perish; one necessity suffer a corresponding increase. The cannot exist without the other in some of the food of man is regulated by a law from which forms in which living organisms are developed. he dare not deviate without suffering. It has been thought by some, that, during the Man, and the lower animals, are constantly great geological epoch to which the formation consuming azotized and carbonaceous matter; of our coal deposits belongs, enormous forests and water, a compound of hydrogen and of tree-ferns and similar plants waved in a oxygen, is their constant pabulum. The nitrotropical luxuriance over the areas now occupied gen of the former combines with the hydrogen with fossil fuel, there being an entire absence of the water, to form ammonia; and the carbon of animal life. It was the hypothesis of an of the latter, with its oxygen and that of the eminent geologist, that these quick-growing air, to form carbonic acid. These pass into the plants were employed to remove carbonic acid atmosphere, and are the most important prinfrom the air, and fit the earth's surface for the ciples upon which the vegetable world depends. existence of animals. Unfortunately for the Man walks the earth, its monarch; all hypothesis, geological research has proved the things material he may, by the power of his existence of air-breathing animals during the mighty mind, subdue to do him service. And carboniferous epoch; and the probability is, yet we find him a mere dependency upon the that, much further back in the scale of time, vegetable world ; and in return for the support the world teemed with moving organisms. of life, by the supply of the elements of nutrition This bit of scientific romance has, however, which it gives him, man, the mighty, is made been seized by the public mind, and some of the machine for furnishing food for the tender our most popular writers have employed it to leaves, which tremble to every passing breeze. add to the interest of their compositions. We All natural phenomena progress in a circle, have now, however, the most satisfactory evi. and each division of nature is dependent upon dence, to prove the existence of animal life one another. We have not yet discovered all during every epoch when vegetation covered the links of the chain; but, depend upon it, no the face of the land.
one in the band by which the creation is bounded The maintenance of animal heat, which is an
is wanting. essential element for the support of animal The cedars of Lebanon, which waved above life, is due, almost entirely, to chemical action, the head of Solomon, have grown, and added and to chemical action exerted on the food to their bulk, by absorbing the carbonic acid taken into the stomach, to supply the waste of formed by the men who aided that mighty the system. As the temperature of the dif king to build his temple to the Lord, and those ferent zones of the earth's surface varies, so we who, generation after generation, have moulddiscover some very remarkable changes in the ered to dust, even to those now living and habits of the inhabitants. Those races who breathing, in performance of the destined ends. inhabit the inter-tropical climes are largely The palms of the tropics—the glorious flowers fruit-eaters, the quantity of animal food made of far southern lands--the fruits of Asia and use of by them being exceedingly small. As America-the humbler, but no less beautiful, we advance towards the temperate regions of European trees and flowers-the herb of the the earth, we find the inhabitants eating more valley, and the weed upon the wall-are all of flesh; but still it is mainly the muscular or them the result of animal life. They have fixed, nitrogenous parts which are consumed. Let us for a season, the elements produced in the advance to the colder regions of “the ice-bound animal economy, at the same time as they aid north," and there we shall find man eating in supplying all that is demanded by the waste enormous quantities of fat as food, and using which the necessities of life compels. animal oil as a common drink. Most startling | The plant is stationary, and is chemically statements are in print of the gluttonous nature's laboratory for producing gluten, meals made by the Esquimaux and the Indians starch, sugar, gum, resin, and all the elements along the frozen shores of Northern Asia. for the formation of flesh and fat. Strange as these narrations appear to us, they! The animal is locomotive, and may be reare the natural consequences of the situation garded as an apparatus for combustion. All in which these men have been placed. Anima: l the compounds formed by the plant are taken heat must be maintained ; and where the atmo- | into its furnace, and returned in a gaseous con."
dition, reduced to the more simple elements, back to the air.
The plant, under the excitation of light, again absorbs these principles, combines them anew, and gives them back to the animal races once more.
Thus are the changes for ever occurring. Nature knows no rest; but, like the o'erlaboured Psyche, toils on for ever. Matter now existing in one form of organization will soon become a disorganized mass; but the spirit of change is working in it, and its chaos gradually assumes new conditions of organization, and puts on new forms of beauty. We may constantly witness the renewal of the great work of creation. The world was without form and roid, and darkness was upon the face of the
deep: the mighty word, “ let there be light," was spoken, the light was; and chaos became, beneath its mysterious touch, converted into a world teeming with every form of life, and glowing with the beautiful.
The round of organic change-the conversion of inorganic matter into an organized form-exhibits to us that constant renewal of creation, which must, to every thinking mind, carry home the conviction that the presiding care of a Creator is over all things now, as it was in the beginning. Things are mutable to us--we may read the story of the earth's mutations on the tablets of her mountains but these changes are but the pulsations of time, marking the progression of order and life around the circle of eternity.
A LITTLE BIT OF ENGLISH HISTORY. SELECTED FROM SOME UNPUBLISHED DOCUMENTS AT ROCHESTER. An immense time ago, when people used | grateful posterity. But, alas ! in his days, their swords to settle a dispute, instead of plate glass windows and long credit were ungiving each other to the lawyers to be sucked known. With the best will to become an gradually to death-when might and right | accomplished swindler, he lacked the opporwere identical — and when people put off tunity; for a swindler without tradesmen, is their consciences till their death-bed, and then like a vampire in a family where there are no gave them to their confessors to clear up and daughters. brighten-a certain baron, by some means or Sir Caur Shaverre, however, made up for other, got possession of the keep of a certain the deficiency; in fact, he rather over-acted his castle, which, for obvious reasons, shall be part at times. What with pillaging smaller nameless.
gentlemen, laying farmers under tribute, and This baron was not exactly the sort of cha bearing about as good a reputation as Don racter you would have selected as a companion Giovanni in his private life, he contrived to for your son at college, as a husband for your render himself as fine a mediæval hero as ever last and youngest daughter, or as chief exe- died penitent, or slept in effigy, with a dog for cutor, supposing your affairs were rather in his pillow, and a lion to keep his feet warm. disorder. In fact, viewed by the prejudiced | But our knight was not content with the and artificial standard of modern times, we vices of this world. Although his time was much doubt whether he might not have made too much taken up to allow of his devoting it one in a public procession, terminating in a to the seven liberal arts, and although he hated suffocating sensation about the regions of the reading as much as he did the Bible itself, still larynx, or have gone to discover new countries he was like a good many other rascals, tolerably at the expense of government. But in these superstitious, and had some indefinite ideas days, when we have utterly lost that fine chival- about the other world, which troubled him rous taste which alone can make murder and sorely when he was sober. Fortunately, howrapine the virtues they are, we must not hope ever, for his peace of mind, such intervals were to arrive at a just estimate of characters like of rare occurrence. that of the knight Sir Caur Shaverre.
· It must not be supposed that our knight felt Sir Caur Shaverre was one of those amiable anxious about his soul, or its condition heregentlemen who combine a taste for the pro after. On the contrary, he left all that to his perty of other people with great profusion in confessor, and his confessor never alarmed him the use of their own. Had ruining tradesmen with troublesome suggestions. But Sir Caur then been the fashion, there is no doubt that Shaverre, with that genuine love of wickedhe would have had a column erected, with his ness for its own sake, which distinguishes the own statue at the top, by an admiring and higher class of sinners, must needs take to the study of the occult sciences, and to wholesale drop in, or a lease would require renewal, and invocations of the —
this gave the dean and canons a good lift for Scientific investigations of this kind were the time-being, and they looked more sleek very dangerous in those days. People reason- and agreeable than ever. But there are trouably objected to raising what they might be blesome spirits in all ages, who will not rest at a loss to get rid of when once raised; and quiet with things as they are. In former burning alive, anathematizing, strangling, and | times, the knight Caur Shaverre had been other gentle punishments of a similar character burnt for meddling with the dead; in the too frequently rewarded the learned in their present, a less distinguished personage would inquiries after the supernatural. Mysterious doubtless have met with the same fate for inlights were seen to twinkle from a turret in terfering on behalf of the living-only burnour knight's castle, and, although he was ing is out of fashion. merely supposed to be going to bed—the unac Most cathedrals have some kind of school countable disappearance of two children, and attached to them; and some of these schools the popular superstitions about their use in are treated very much as if they were left for raising persons whom other persons had no the amusement of the chapter, rather than wish to see, proved the means of bringing Sir | for the education of the scholars. Such was Cæur Shaverre into serious trouble.
the case with the present establishment. Whatever may have been the nature of our Whether from a taste for the picturesque, or knight's connexion with the , it is certain from negligence, the old school-house had that it cost him his life. Scandal says, that been suffered to become a heap of ruins; and the extent of his property had a terrible effect the boys' educational accommodation was conupon the mind of his judges, and that the fined to a miserable dilapidated house in ancharge of sorcery was only an excuse for get other part of the town. All was dullness and ting at his estates. Be that as it may, poor mismanagement, and there seemed to be no Sir Cæur Shaverre terminated his life in an funds for anything. The boys, so far from upright position, and with such a degree of being boarded and lodged gratis, as in the old feverish heat as might arise from being placed times, when the school was founded, paid more in the centre of lighted faggots, smeared with to the school than they received from it, were pitch and sulphur. His property went either few in number, and had no scholarships or to the king or the church; and, strange to exhibitions to assist them on leaving school. say, although two-thirds of it had been pillaged But an unquiet spirit was at work. The from other people, neither king nor church Reverend Speakout Shameall, head-master of ever thought of giving any of it back to the the school, was given to reading canon's books, original owners.
especially those about the history of cathedrals Long, very long after, when the stake had and schools. It was a great pity he employed become unfashionable as a mode of punish his time so unprofitably, for he would have ment, and when the Bible was more read, and gained much more by attending to arithmetic the priests less superstitiously reverenced, the and the interests of the chapter-not that he castle in which the iniquities of Sir Cour was at all ignorant of arithmetic—but, someShaverre were said to have been perpetrated, how or other, he could never make the sums was in ruins, and might be seen, at particular worked by the dean and chapter "come right." hours of the day, for a shilling a head. The The fact was, Mr. Shameall had for some neighbouring cathedral, built out of the time been comparing the incomes received by knight's confiscated property, was a noble the chapter with those accruing to the school, place, and the chapter were as rich as people and the result of his calculations was, that who have next to nothing to do, and who are while the incomes of the dean and canons had obliged to live in good society, ought to be. increased, like the offshoots of a Banyan tree, No one ever complained that they did not those belonging to the school had either melted keep their carriages, give dinner parties, and into oblivion, or remained in a state of stunted do other things like gentlemen. No one ever unproductiveness. This was an awkward said the bishop's town house was shabby, or state of things; and Mr. Shameall felt himself that his sons were ill provided for; and no one called upon to call upon the dean and chapter ever hinted at a canon living upon his canonry for an explanation. without other preferment.
Whether these excellentgentlemen had really Everything was in a comfortable condition! | forgotten the arithmetic they had learned at The cathedral lands broughtexcellent revenues, school, or that they thought fit to keep their and every now and then a good fine would knowledge to themselves, is not known; but