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mother, the Papal government, roused by the for anonymous accusations and groundless murmurs of the British Lion, predictive of his calumnies, and even the secrets of the confesancient roar in cases of tyranny or injustice, sional are too often betrayed within its walls has condescended to put forth a vindication of to serve party purposes. But the other tribunal its penal code, which it describes as “the fruit to which we have alluded, that of the Cardinal of long study by men of great learning, well Vicar, in Rome, and of the bishops in the proacquainted with all other codes that have ever vinces, has the power to carry on oppression been brought to light," adding, in an admir and injustice on a much more extended scale. able spirit of self-satisfaction, “this code is Exercising, as it claims to do, the censorship such as to make us certainly never wish for the over the habits and morals of the inhabitants, regulations of other countries." This assertion the honour and tranquility of whole families we fully believe, as far as the administrators of are placed at the mercy of jealous intolerance, the code are concerned, but we may be per or vindictive malignancy. Marriage being mitted to remain somewhat sceptical, as to the considered, in the Roman States, by the Canon coincidence in it of those who are submitted to law, as a sacrament, all domestic life comes the “ certain methods, not variable according under the scrutiny and jurisdiction of this to the pleasure of the judge," which, this most insolent and arbitrary tribunal, the same veracious statement assures us, “ lead to flagrant abuses of which we cannot sully our the discovery of truth, and, shutting the doors pages by recording. Let it suffice to say, that to fraud on every side, afford the prisoner a Farina, whom we have already mentioned, as certain way of exculpating himself, and noted for his want of honour, and Ferrini, a proving his innocence" (?). The document, common jailor, dismissed from his situation by curious enough in itself, as a picture of legal Gregory XVI., for mal-practices, were among prevarication, then goes on to say that the members of a tribunal which claims the Murray had the privilege of choosing his own privilege of entering private houses at any advocate; subject, be it understood, to the hour, night or day, and tearing wives from approval of the head of the Supreme Tribunal; the arms of their husbands, or husbands from a clause taken no notice of in the dwelling their wives, on the pretended accusation of upon the privilege, and that he accordingly some immorality committed, it may be, years chose the advocate Olimpiade Dionisi, “a most before, and of which the charge is generally a learned professor of the Roman University, mere instrument of extortion. To the tribunals and a most acute and eloquent orator ;" to we have already mentioned, another was, howwhich we may add, as the “ vindication" does ever, added, after the restoration, termed the not, a salaried functionary of the government, Council of Censure, the object of which is to and, moreover, one of the judges of the Com pry into the conduct of all government mission of Censure, a political, secret, and ex employés, magistrates, military men, provincial ceptional tribunal, formed for the express and municipal officers, administrators of pious purpose of depriving of their offices all govern congregations, hospitals, &c., with the faculty ment and municipal employés, whose conduct, of suspending them from their functions, deduring the revolution, was not strictly satis- grading them from their rank, or dismissing factory to the restored régime. Even the them altogether. This has been effected, by judges themselves are liable to be removed at an inquisitorial system, without communicating the pleasure of the government, and as they are any accusation, without properly examining chiefly young prelates, anxious for advance or confronting witnesses, and consequently ment, they are entirely devoted to the ruling without allowing a chance of vindication! The powers.

exhorbitant excesses of this tribunal have Besides the Rota Tribunal, and the Sacra surpassed any that have hitherto existed; even Consulta, there are two other tribunals, equally, the Septembrists of atrocious memory, in a or even more arbitrary, in the Roman States. kind of tribunal of their own organizing, reThe first of these is the Inquisition, or, as it is quired an accusation to be regularly made out, mis-called, the Holy Office, of which little and allowed the proper means of defence; but remains to be told in the present day, with this Roman Council of Censure, by a single which the English public is not already ac stroke of the pen, subjected sixty thousand qainted : it is but justice, however, to state, persons, chiefly of the middle classes, to a secret that its persecutions have been for some time persecution, not limited to the partizans of limited and exceptional, and its zeal directed the republic, but comprising many who remuch more actively towards political than fused service under the revolutionary authori. religious offenders. Still, it opens a wide field | ties.


It is not to be supposed that the employ millions of your fellow creatures, most gifted ments thus disposed of depended upon the by nature, in themselves, and in the possessions pleasure of the government-all government nature has granted them. We could trace employments in the Roman States, are ge pictures of the misery and despair which, nerally supposed to be conferred for life, and through the arbitrary despotism of the Council are, therefore, eagerly sought after, though of Censure, during the two short years of its the salaries are in general so moderate as existence, instigated almost always, by injusbarely to afford the means of decent sub

tice, error, or private feeling of enmity and vinsistence; moreover, of these salaries a certain dictiveness — have seized families whom we proportion is retained by the Roman govern have seen in the enjoyment of simple comment, which acts in the parental light of an petence and social cheerfulness, that would Assurance Company, towards its officials, in call forth sighs of pity from many kind English order to provide a fund for them, from which firesides rich in the same blessings. they draw their half-pay on retiring from office, We need only add, in proof of the errors and from which, in case of their death, their and iniquities of this abominable tribunal, widows and children are pensioned. Thus to that Pio Nono himself had the firmness to deprive these officials, on every slight pretext, dissolve it, avowing, in excuse for his daring of their employments, is to do away with the in this instance, to think and act for himself, right which they have lawfully purchased by that complaints of its cruelties and wickedness regular payments; it is, in fact, to confiscate had reached him on every side : happy had it the property which they have confided to the been for him, and for his country, had he honour of government. Another hardship on always acted thus; but for thousands of his the part of these poor officials is, that on being poor suffering, ill-used subjects, the mischief thus suddenly turned out of employments they was done, and he, “ vicar of God,” and “king may have held for many years, involving the of kings," as he claims to be, had no means of prime and vigour of their lives, they cannot repairing it. In the simple phraseology of the immediately turn to other occupations; and if old ballad of “Chevy Chase," we may say, even they were able and willing so to do,

“ The child may rue that was unborn, where are they to find persons courageous

The mischiefs of that day." enough to give shelter and occupation to victims of political persecution! Alas, for From the consideration of criminal jurisdicRome! what in London would form friends tion, we are easily led on to the prisons, the for the oppressed, there only feeds the ven- galleys, the system of poplar education in Rome, geance of the oppressor. O, happy England! and other subjects, belonging to Italy, yet, in cherish your rights and privileges-defend effect, connected with the welfare of the whole them to the last drop of your free-born blood! | human race; but these must be reserved for but let not your own blessings harden your a future period, and we, for the present, conhearts to the miseries of others; let not your clude, with the hope that the more clearly we own glorious security from oppression or show the griefs of other countries, the more wrong, lap you in selfish, nay, sinful indiffe- gratitude we shall inspire in the hearts of our rence, to the hardships, the injustice, which readers for the blessings secured to us in our would crush every spark of manhood out of own.


THERE is a class of art to which it is not | certain charm in these works, which is a sure very easy to affix a true and definite name, passport to public favour, with a large number and still more difficult to determine what who seek to be pleased rather than instructed, sentiment it is intended to convey, or to who are satisfied with the elegancies of art, what feeling of the mind it appeals. Pictures and desire in it no other qualities. of such a character call forth no emotion by An American writer upon artist-life, Mr. their grandeur or sublimity, they elicit neither Tuckerman, says, with much truth—"In the reverence nor admiration, tell no tale of history world of art there exists a kind of table-land, or fiction, exhibit neither pathos nor humour, equally distant from mountain grandeur and and scarcely reveal to us the wonders and the flowery vales, where a cheerful tone and quiet beauty of created nature ; and yet there is a harmony refresh the senses, and gratify without disturbing the heart. In an age like the But it is not the painter alone who derives present, those who thus minister to the more gratification from his art, it cannot ever be a tranquil pleasures of imagination, exercise a matter of indifference to the most illiterate, benign vocation. They may not thrill, but though tastes will differ, as to that quality of they often charm. Their labours create no art in which the pleasure is found. It must epochs of inward life, yet they often cheer and never be regarded only as a luxury to be possolace. The lessons conveyed may be calm, sessed by the few and wealthy; but rather as but it is not the less refreshing; and the asso a powerful engine for enlightening and inciations enkindled, like a bland atmosphere, structing the masses—as a gentle and unreyield a pastime not the less desirable, because proaching friend, whose voice is in alliance it is unmarked either by tears or laughter, with goodness and virtue, and which, when and is indicated only through an unconscious once understood, is able both “ to sooth missmile or placid reverie."

fortune and to reclaim from folly.” It is the While admitting that artists not unfre duty of an artist to see that he does not mis. quently address themselves to very singular apply his talents, by employing them to any themes, or treat ordinary subjects in a very un less worthy purpose. familiar manner, for the purpose of attracting These remarks seem naturally to suggest notice to their works, it is equally incontro themselves from the contemplation of such a vertible that they add but little to their reputa picture as “The Garden Swing," a pleasing and tion. The world, in general, has no sympathy graceful composition, though it makes no appeal with experimentalists in art; it is slow in to our sensibilities : it has in it none of those recognising any deviation from paths in which qualities which called forth the poet's linesothers have walked, and in the appreciation

“Whate'er Lorraine light touch'd with soft'ning hue. of what may possibly be truth, but what it

Or savage Rosa dash’d, or learned Poussin drew;" cannot see to be such. The late Turner is an instance of this rejection by the multitude, but it is a subject one is contented to look at, because his nature was not theirs, and his because it speaks of human joys, and whatever vision saw things hidden from them. Those does this can scarcely be unwelcome. The who have an eye only for the picturesque, or reader of Boccaccio will be reminded by it of whose notion of painting is confined to the some of the scenes described by that elegant, graphic reflection of external creation, will but not very moral, writer; and the admirers find, comparatively, but little satisfaction in of Watteau's pictures will find in it a resemthe fruits of such a pencil as his, which appeals blance, in style, to many of his most esteemed as much to thought and meditation to ascertain productions. Indeed, to Watteau may be its truth, as to imagination.

attributed the merit of originating this style But whatever the subject may be, and how

of art, which, for the sake of a better title, we ever treated, " there is a pleasure in painting would call “ aristocratic pastoral,” or, as Walwhich none but painters know;" whether pole aptly describes it, as representing an sitting under the canopy of heaven to copy “impossible rural life, led by those opposites nature in her various moods and aspects, or of rural simplicity-people of fashion and solitarily in the studio, with no other com rank.” Such a style could only have emanated panion than one's own thoughts and fancies, from a Frenchman, living at a period when the costumed lay-figure, and the heaps of in folly was allied with pleasure, and frivolity congruous and motley materials which con had taken the place of sober reason. In our stitute the chief furniture of the painting-room, | day, to see men and women amusing themthe artist has a world of treasures within selves with a "garden swing,” would certainly himself in which he luxuriates, and which afford meriment, but scarcely any feeling none can take away. Thus, says Hazlitt, beyond this. Watteau's success led to many “the hours pass away untold, without imitators among his countrymen, but few of chagrin and without weariness; nor would our school have followed his example. Stothard he ever wish to pass them otherwise. Inno and Smirke are almost the only names that cence is joined with industry, pleasure with have been popularly associated with this style: business; and the mind is satisfied, though it more, however, as designers for book-prints, is not engaged in thinking, or in saying any than as painters of important pictures, similar mischief."

to those which the French artist produced.

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