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Adam Smith advantage agricultural amount Arthur Young capitalist causes circulating capital competition condition considerable consumed consumption cottier cultivation demand diminished division of labour duction effect employment England English exertion existing expense farmer favourable fixed flax France funds greater gross produce habits human hundred quarters improvement income increase India individual industry interest Ireland joint stock companies kind labour employed labouring classes land landlord less limited machinery mankind manufacture manure material means ment metayer mode nations natural agents necessary objects obtained occupation operations paid peasant proprietors peasantry persons plough political economy population portion possession principle productive labour productive power profit proportion purpose quantity racter remuneration render rent require saving Sismondi slavery slaves small farms society soil subsistence sufficient supply suppose surplus taxes tenant tenure things tion tivated unproductive wages waste land wealth whole
Сторінка 147 - Those ten persons, therefore, could make among them upwards of forty-eight thousand pins in a day. Each person, therefore, making a tenth part of forty-eight thousand pins, might be considered as making four thousand eight hundred pins in a day. But if they had all wrought separately and independently, and without any of them having been educated to this peculiar business, they certainly could not each of them have made twenty, perhaps not one pin in a day...
Сторінка 149 - This great increase of the quantity of work which, in consequence of the division of labour, the same number of people are capable of performing, is owing to three different circumstances; first, to the increase of dexterity in every particular workman; secondly, to the saving of the time which is commonly lost in passing from one species of work to another ; and lastly, to the invention of a great number of machines which facilitate and abridge labour, and enable one man to do the work of many.
Сторінка 240 - It is not so with the Distribution of Wealth. That is a matter of human institution solely. The things once there, mankind, individually or collectively, can do with them as they like.
Сторінка 146 - One man draws out the wire; another straights it; a third cuts it; a fourth points it; a fifth grinds it at the top for receiving the head...
Сторінка 240 - The distribution of wealth, therefore, depends on the laws and customs of society. The rules by which it is determined, are what the opinions and feelings of the ruling portion of the community make them, and are very different in different ages and countries; and might be still more different, if mankind so chose.
Сторінка 151 - The habit of sauntering, and of indolent careless application, which is naturally, or rather necessarily, acquired by every country workman who is obliged to change his work and his tools every half hour, and to apply his hand in twenty different ways almost every day of his life, renders him almost always slothful and lazy, and incapable of any vigorous application, even on the most pressing occasions.
Сторінка 329 - Give a man the secure possession of a bleak rock, and he will turn it into a garden ; give him a nine years' lease of a garden, and he will convert it into a desert.
Сторінка 150 - It is impossible to pass very quickly from one kind of work to another, that is carried on in a different place, and with quite different tools. A country weaver, who cultivates a small farm, must lose a good deal of time in passing from MB loom to the field, and from the field to his loom.
Сторінка 271 - private property was it ever contemplated that the proprietor of land should be merely a sinecurist quartered on it.