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payment of this illegal tax, and required that a parliament might be called, as usual, to fix the demands on the subject; for which measure, these gallant precursors of Hampden were forthwith immured in a tower of Dublin castle. They sent messengers to Elizabeth, to complain of the conduct of her lord-deputy; for which presumption, as she called it, she transferred them to the more alarming prison of the Tower of London. The English parliament, however, finding their sole crime was the vindication of the existence of a parliament in Ireland, were inclined to view the case as bearing on their own. Elizabeth, therefore, postponed her vengeance on Desmond and Baltinglas, and ordered their liberation.

Philip of Spain then, in revenge for the assistance given by Elizabeth to his protestant subjects in the Low Countries, proffered aid to the Irish; the Geraldines and Eustaces few to arms, and for many years sustained a contest with the English lord-deputy. At length the venerable earl of Desmond, crushed by overwhelming numbers, became a fugitive, and after wandering about in glens and forests for three years, was surprised in a lonely hut by a party of his enemies. Kelly of Moriarty struck off his head, and conveyed it, as an acceptable present, to queen Elizabeth, by whose order it was fixed on London Bridge.

The lord-deputy Montjoy (the Irish say by the advice of Spenser, the poet), the commander of the English forces, commenced that horrid war of extermination which natives call “ the hag's wars.” The houses and standing corn of the wretched natives were burnt, and the cattle killed, wherever the English came, which starved the people into temporary submission. When some of the horrors of the case were represented to the queen, and she found the state to which the sister island was reduced, she was heard to exclaim, “ that she found she had sent wolves, not shepherds, to govern Ireland, for they had left nothing but ashes and carcasses for her to reign over!"

This deprecatory speech did not, however, save the lives of the patriots who had resisted the extinction of the Irish parliaments. Lord Baltinglas was beheaded, and a peculiar act passed, called the Statute of Baltinglas, which confiscated the estates granted to the Eustaces in Ireland, al

· Camden. Lingard.

though the young brother of lord Baltinglas had taken no part in the rebellion,

.' The latter days of Elizabeth were certainly impoverished and embittered by the long strife in Ireland, and if her sister declared “that, when dead, Calais would be found written on her heart,” Elizabeth had as much reason to affirm, that the burning cares connected with the state of Ireland had wasted her lamp of life.

See the important document in Egerton Papers, published by the Camden Society, headed, “Royal Prerogative.” The Rev. Charles Eustace, of Kildare, is the representative of this family, and the claimant of the Baltinglas peerage. The illegal attainder, by which the last lord Baltinglas suffered, could not, in point of law or justice, affect the descendants of his brother, who never forfeited his allegiance. The restoration, by George IV., of the forfeited peerages to the descendants of some of the noblemen who suffered for their devotion to the cause of Stuart, was not only a generous but a politic measure, as it healed all ancient wounds, and for ever quenched the spirit of hereditary disaffection to the reigning family in many a noble heart, which, from that hour, glowed with loyal affection to the sovereign, in grateful acknowledgment of the royal act of grace. Surely the services which the father and brothers of the venerable claimant of the Baltinglas peerage have performed for England, have been sufficient to obliterate the offence of their collateral ancestor, the unfortunate but patriotic victim of the unconstitutional government of Elizabeth in Ireland.

END OF VOL. VI.

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