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of the representatives of the universities; viz. for that of Palermo two, the university of Catania sends one.
"The qualification for voting for a district representative, is the life-possession of actual property, or the possession for life of a public office in the place of election, or the being a consul, and sworn master of any corporation or trade.
"No peer, public functionary, or other individual, dependent on the crown, can interfere in the election of the commons, under pain of rendering the election void. Candidates are prohibited from giving entertainments, or any gratifications whatever, to the electors. No military body can be stationed in the place where the election takes place.
“No foreigner, of whatever nation, can be returned as a member of the house of commons; nor can individuals, under twenty years of age, members of the judicial order, persons in subaltern offices under government, or those enjoying a royal pension.
" The duration of each parliament is to be four years. The king opens and prorogues the session either in person or by commission. No member of the house of commons can vote by proxy. The king names the president of the house of peers; but the house of commons chooses its own. A proposition for a tax can emanate only from the house of commons; in like manner, a proposition which in its tendency may be injurious to the peerage, can emanate only from the house of peers. The king cannot interfere in the discussions of the parliament. Nor can one house interfere with the deliberations of the other ; but both may appoint committees, for the purpose of coming to a mutual understanding. The houses cannot deliberate, if there are not, at least thirty members present in the house of peers, and sixty in that of the commons."
Quitting Sicily, our author proceeds to the Æolian or Lipari islands, of which also he gives a general sketch.
Stromboli is a conical mountain 2000 feet high, and entirely volcanic. It is constantly burning, and is probably the regular vent-hole of the subterraneous cavity, or ignited matter, which supplies all the Italian volcanoes, and which has, in former times, produced the various remarkable phenomena which that country displays. The crater is at the side of the mountain, and its action has been described in a very accurate manner, by Spallanzani. Captain Smyth's observations are of a similar nature. The fluid lava gradually rises in the cavity, for a certain number of hours, and is then disengaged, which produces an explosion, discharging stones and sand; and when this has passed, the fluid subsides, to repeat the same process in a few hours. Once for all, we may notice and dismiss our author's theory of pyrites, sulphur, oxygen, and bitumen. There are neither pyrites nor bitumen in any volcano. The “ Mr. B.” to which he alludes, is a silly tale of a certain old Booty, which, if he pleases
to look, he will find among John Wesley's demonological articles in the Arminian Magazine. It is very probable, that Theodoric, William the bad, Henry VIII, and Old Booty are all equally doing penance in Strombolo; particularly as Captain Smyth says, it was so adjudged in Doctors Commons. Panaria, another of this group, contains two hundred people, but excepting Basiluzzo, which has three or four houses, the remainder of the Dattoli are uninhabited. Lipari is the seat of government, with a population of 18,000. It contains antiquarian vestiges of its former classical inhabitants. Though a volcanic island, it has not displayed any eruptions for many years, but the ground is hot, and emits sulphureous vapours when perforated, and it also possesses hot springs.
The crater of Vulcano is a mile and a quarter in circumference, and a quarter of a mile deep, covered with sulphur, muriate of ammonia, and boracic acid, and emitting sulphuretted hydrogen, with a continued roar beneath, like that of a cataract. There are frequent rumblings like distant thunder, and occasionally it throws up clouds of smoke, but without fire. A pale flame issues at night from the fissures. Salina contains 4,000 inhabitants, and is noted for its fertility. It is here that the celebrated and well-known sweet wine is made.
Felicudi and Alicudi are the last of the Æolian islands. The former is nine miles in circumference, with a population of 800, and the last six, containing about 250 people. Like the rest, they are formed of volcanic rocks, and the former is fertile and well cultivated.
The remainder of the Sicilian islands are Ustica, Pantellaria, Linosa, and Lampedusa. The former contains the town of Santa Maria. Pantellaria is thirty miles in circumference, with a population of about 5,000. Linosa is uninhabited, and Lampedusa seems to be possessed in a species of regal solitude by one English family, settled on a commercial speculation, which does not appear to have succeeded.
It is time for us to end; and we need only add, that there is a large tabular and condensed appendix, containing the author's hydrographic and geodetic documents and observations, the heights of mountains, a statistical table of Sicily, (formerly alluded to) a list of fishes, and other matter which is useful, without being amusing.
Essai d'Une Introduction Critique au Nouveau Testament, ou Analyse
Raisonnée de l'Ouvrage intitulé, “ Einleitung in die Schriften des
Par J. E. CELLERIER, fils, Pasteur
Cubu et Professeur de Langues Orientales, Critique et Antiquités Sacrées, à l Académie de Genève. Svo. pp. 538. Price 9s. chez Manget et Cherbuliez, Genève. 1823.
The minister of Jesus Christ, who is duly commissioned to instruct his brethren, ought himself to be intimately acquainted with those doctrines and precepts, which he is desirous of communicating to others. He ought, therefore, in the first place, to study the New Testament in a twofold point of view. He ought to investigate its nature and history, to ascertain its text, and to determine its meaning. In the next place, he ought to collect the ideas contained in the Sacred Volume, to explain one by another, and to dispose the whole into a body of Christian doctrine and duty. This latter inquiry is the province of the divine : the former, which is altogether historical and external, constitutes that of the critic. Those treatises, therefore, which supply the requisite critical information to biblical students, are rightly termed “ Critical Introductions." The Germans have abundance of works of this description ; among which those of Eichhorn, Michaelis, and Hug, are best known: the labours of Michaelis have been presented to the English reader by Bishop Marsh, whose annotations are often more valuable than the observations of the original author. But although that learned Prelate has supplied many things, which were omitted by Michaelis (whose last edition was published in 1788); yet much important and most valuable information has been brought together by subsequent German critics, of which neither Michaelis, nor his English Translator, could avail themselves at the time of their respective publications. Of these critical works, the most valuable perhaps, for the New Testament, is the German Introduction of J. L. Hug, (Roman Catholic) Theological Professor in the University of Fribourg, in Brisgaw; the first edition of which appeared in 1808, and the second in 1821, in two volumes, octavo, with numerous valuable corrections and additions. This work is the basis of M. Cellérier's treatise ; which is designed
permany, Jern bilpublished to
by him as a supplement to Professor Chenevière's French Version of Michaelis, published at Geneva, in 1822.
The modern biblico-critical works, which have appeared in Germany, are too often characterized by excess in philological speculations, and by licentious criticisms, calculated to subvert the foundations of revealed religion. But from these glaring defects, Hug is entirely free. Though a member of that Church, which is avowedly unfavourable to the free investigation of the Scriptures, he has brought to his work the rarely combined qualities of prudence and sober inquiry. Persuaded of the truth of the Scriptures, he has consecrated his learning and talents to strengthening the foundations of his faith, which had been shaken by rash and inconsiderate critics. As the treatise of the Theological Professor of Fribourg, is very little known beyond the limits of Germany, M. Cellérier has rendered an essential service to the students of Sacred Literature, by presenting to them the most valuable and essential parts of it, through the medium of the French language; sometimes translating, at others analysing the Professor's labours.
The work consists of two parts. In the first the author treats on the authenticity, credibility, canon, and criticism of the New Testament, collectively; and in the second he analyses and discusses the several books of which it is composed. Amidst the various matters considered in this volume, there are three in particular, in which the erudition and originality of the author are pre-eminently conspicuous, viz. the authenticity of the books of the New Testament, the history of the text and its various readings,—the analysis and comparison of the Evangelists. We shall endeavour to put our readers in possession of the most material parts.
Jesus was born; he taught, suffered, and died; his religion, which has been and still is propagated both far and wide, is contained in certain writings which Christians venerate, and which they trace up to the first disciples of the Saviour. But are these writings authentic? This is a question of the utmost importance, the solution of which may be drawn, internally, from the nature and form of these writings, and, from external testimonies. On the former of these topics we cannot withhold the following profound remarks of Professor Hug.
“ Let us suppose that a man, who has never known these books, nor even heard of them, but who nevertheless possesses the requisite knowledge to appreciate them:-let us suppose that such a man should open, read, and analyse them without any external guide, and should form his judgment of them, solely from their contents; what opinion
must he conceive of their origin, their age, and their authors ? Though written in Greek, he will soon say, they belong to none of the ordinary dialects of that language ; but, either in the words used, or in the syntax, or in the phrases and idioms, they so strikingly remind us of the Hebrew tongue, that we are constrained to consider them as the productions of Jews who spoke Greek. These authors appear to be utter strangers to every kind of science and historical knowledge, that is not ordinarily possessed by the common people ; and, with the exception of the books of the Hebrews, they never allude to the writings and literature of the ancients. They uniformly speak of the Jewish republic and nation, as then actually subsisting; and, notwithstanding the shortness of their narratives, such are the vividness and truth with which they delineate the actions recorded by them, as well as the emotions and gestures of the actors, and the impressions produced on the witnesses, that the various scenes appear to be still passing before our eyes.
“ Such would be the observations of a man, who, without any previous data, should endeavour to form an opinion concerning these books, solely from internal arguments. And such is precisely the opinion entertained by Christians. According to them, the authors of the books of the New Testament were of Jewish origin and birth, in the common ranks of life, and destitute of learning and literature; who lived during the last period of the Jewish republic, before the destruction of Jerusalem; and who were most frequently eye-witnesses of the events which they have related.
“ Upon the whole, these writers evince such an exact and intimate knowledge of the age and country, in which they place the life of Jesus, that we are compelled to admit them to have been contemporary authors. The more we enter into particulars, the more we study the history of the opinions, customs, and manners of that age, the more evidently do we trace them in our authors. A similar examination of the method of instruction, pursued by Jesus, will bring us to the same result. Does he speak to the Pharisees? The principles on which he relies, and the applications which he makes of them, are widely different from those which he adopts when speaking to the Sadducees. With the Samaritans again, his discourse turns on very different topics, manners, and ideas. Does he address his disciples, or speak to the people? The subject of his discourse is,-hopes, desires, and prejudices, still more widely different. The instructions of Jesus, then, suppose other intellectual habits, another faith, and a new train of thought. Lastly, in his intercourse with that people, we may easily see that he has to do with a nation, -estimable on the one hand for their sensibility or warmth of feeling, for their zeal for and love of God; but on the other hand violent and irritable from their very piety, and easily drawn aside into rash measures, the consequences of which they never give themselves time to calculate,”