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hate formed an alliance with the editors of the Zuriago, which, to say the truth, is a real mad dog, which poisons all those he bites. This is, however, an alliance that we should have shunned at any other time. But the torpor of the ministers forces us to recur to the most violent expedients, in order to awaken them from their lethargy. If Spain is to perish, we wish that it should at least one day be said, that ' the followers of Padilla left nothing untried to save her.'"
This single passage speaks volumes; and Count Pecchio's Journal is filled with similar evidence that even among the Liberals, there was at least as much hatred of each other, as of the French and the Serviles. As the tide of invasion rolled towards the capital, the anarchy increased ; defection and treachery multiplied; and the revolution of 1820 finished by producing many turbulent demagogues, almost as many traitors, but not one master spirit of ability and virtue. The body of the people were indubitably passive; whether under better guidance they might have been rendered otherwise may be questioned.
"In the event of a French invasion, what part will Juan Casa Parda, that is to say, the Spanish people take ?' Having proposed this problem to one of those men, for whom there are no illusions in this world; one who reduces honor, glory, virtue, every thing to weight and measure, who calculates all human actions with the most scrupulous regard to arithmetic, he replied with an ironical smile• Do you imagine that Juan Casa Parda is unconquerable, as some of his adulators so often repeat? And yet, have the Phænicians, Carthaginians, Romans, Goths, Moors, and even the Houses of Austria and Bourbon reigned over him. The people of Spain are vain and egotistical, like every other people. The 2nd of May, 1808, was an impulse of national vengeance which does them honor; but I, who witnessed the scene, can assure you, that it was very far from resembling your sanguinary Sicilian vespers. It cannot be denied, that Juan Casa Parda made many a great and generous sacrifice during the late war; but how often was it necessary, even during that war, to take his money and his children from him by main force. The people will always be the people ; a mere flock, which carries him who seizes the whip, no matter who he is. If men of talent and firmness govern during the present struggle, the people of Spain will march in the path they point out.''
Whether this opinion was well-founded or not, the event has left us no reason to judge. The people did not “march": bút the enquirer will not discover from Count Pecchio's Journal, where the men were to be found who deserved their confidence, or could have inspired their exertions,
Remarks on the North of Spain. By John Bramsen, Author of
“ Travels in Egypt, Syria, and Greece,” fc. &c. 8vo. pp. 152. Price 6s. 6d. Whittakers. London. 1823.
This unpretending little volume is merely an amusing account of an excursion from Bayonne through the North of Spain, in the autumn of 1822. Mr. Bramsen, after visiting Bilboa, travelled as far as Vittoria, and then returned into France by a different route. From this journey he has brought away many notices of the scenery and manners of the country, taken, like pencil sketches on the road, in easy and expressive outline. In their connection with the political aspect of Spain at that moment, these remarks afford one more proof of the indifference of the peasantry to the constitutional cause; and we shall sum up his evidence, and close the subject of Spanish politics with the result of his observations.
* From the preceding narrative, I draw the conclusion, that the constitutional cause finds but few partizans in the villages and small towns of the North of Spain; where ignorance and superstition hold divided empire over the minds and passions of the inhabitants. In fact, the peasants are of so listless a nature, that they are, generally speaking, little better than passive observers of the actions of either party. Some are so peaceably engaged in agricultural occupations ; so little enlightened on the subject of politics, and exhibit so little desire to interest themselves respecting it, that they are ignorant of the principles and views even of their nearest neighbours. Others, adverse to the pursuits of industry, connect themselves with the various parties of Guerillas, who hover about the villages, and harass travellers by extorting from them involuntary contributions, under the pretext of being badly paid by their chiefs. Frequently it even happens, that evil-disposed peasants, in small parties, armed with muskets, infest the roads, and rob all parties without mercy or distinction, and under the pretence of belonging to the Factious, exercise all the privileges of warfare. The real soldiers of the Army of the Faith, however, do not molest travellers farther than demanding and examining their passports ; which done, they allow them to pursue their journey; unless they happen to intercept volunteers belonging to the constitutional cause; in which case the latter are detained until they can procure a ransom."
Letters to and from Henrietta, Countess of Suffolk, and her second
Husband, the Hon. GEORGE BERKELEY, from 1712 to 1767. With historical, biographical, and explanatory Notes. Two Vols. 8vo. Price 1l. 10s. Murray. London. 1824.
Bolingbrokenected withe court i
This highly amusing publication is understood, in the literary circles, to have been edited by Mr. Croker, to whose superintendance Lady Londonderry confided (and to their great ade vantage) the charge of these family papers.
Lady Suffolk, all the world knows, was long the favourite of George the Second. She had been supposed hostile to the political influence of his Queen, and her name is not only intimately mixed with the court intrigues of the period, but in: timately connected with its literature,-since Swift, Pope, Gay, Bolingbroke, Chesterfield, and many others, have written of her in their works, and now figure among her correspondents.
The volumes before us present much matter for grave reflection; and for gay reflection too, if ever reflection takes that tone. It is pleasant to contemplate, as if they were our contemporaries and familiars, the celebrated of other days, divested of their public characters. This is the great charm of authentic correspondence, and these letters possess it in a remarkable degree. But even beyond this they have a value which highly recommends them ; we allude to their developement of many points in history, and their evidence of other motives, and even other events, than those which occur in the heavy tissues of the historians.
.66 The account you give me (says Lord Chesterfield to Mrs. Howard, in a letter dated Hague, July 26, 1729,) of Lord Herbert's journey, to Paris is very satisfactory, and convinces me of the truth of a common observation ; that little regard is to be had to history, especially to the causes generally assigned by historians for great events. I confess his Lordship's journey had raised my curiosity, as it did the speculations of all Europe, and has been variously accounted for; but the true reason has not been guessed. Some thought that he was ordered to go and cruize in the Mediterranean till the arrival of the feets; others thought he was sent to Paris, to show that in him alone we were able to fulfil all our engagements. For my own part, I (who am not apt to refine) concluded that the court of France only desired to have him there in the absence of Bannières. In short, every one judged according to his hopes or his fears. But no doubt those powers that were so apprehensive of his motions will think themselves very well off when they shall come to know that for this time his Lordship only meditates the destruction of tied wigs. I can tell him to his comfort, that there is not such a thing in France now as a tied wig, but they all wear their own hair, or little wigs that they call des bonnets." Vol. I. p. 347.
And Lady Hervey, in an Epistle of two years later date, observes,
“ I am mightily taken up with a book of letters, in which are many secret negotiations in the times of Queen Elizabeth, King James, and King Charles the First. It lets one into several little anecdotes of those times, which are very curious.” Vol. I. p. 411.
These are just remarks, and they illustrate our position, that the publication of genuine correspondence, especially of persons of the class exhibited in these pages, affords the best possible lights for keeping history to accurate facts. . With respect to the present service, it is the more acceptable, as the time is near enough to our own to render it interesting; and, in consequence of the struggle between two powerful factions for supremacy, and between two families for the crown, the events which it commemorates claim a stronger possession of the reader. But having said so much by way of preface and praise, we shall proceed directly to the extracts which are to justify our opinions.
Among the epistolary flirtations of Mrs. Howard, is one of great length and gravity (assisted by Gay the poet, who was her accessary in such matters), with the renowned Earl of Peterborough. His lordship's love-making is wondrously like that in the most ancient Romances, when five or ten volumes folio told of the wooer's pains, and bore witness to the obduracy with which ladies sustained their prolix sieges. Yet Peterborough was a poet too : ex. gr. The following lines are far superior to those addressed by Pope to the same.lady.
“ I said to my heart, between sleeping and waking,
• Thou wild thing, that always art leaping or aching,
• Thus accused, the wild thing gave this sober reply:
* See, the heart without motion, though Celia pass by!
Give the eye any joys, or the heart any sorrows.
When our Sappho appears-she, whose wit so refined
" • Prudentia as vainly would put in her claim,
Ever gazing on heaven, though man is her aim :
But Chloe so lively, so easy, so fair,
" O wonderful creature ! a woman of reason!
Never grave out of pride, never gay out of season ;
Vol. I. p. xlvi.
Though the termination is not grammatical, the thoughts are good, and not so strained as in his lordship's letters, of which we subjoin a specimen. The swain writes thus :
“ As I can as well live without meat and sleep as without thinking of her who has possession of my soul, so to find some relief, in never having any conversation with this adored lady, I have been forced, when alone, to make many and many a dialogue betwixt her and myself; but, alas ! madam, the conclusions are always in her favour, and I am often most cruelly condemned by myself—nay more, her indifference and almost all her rigour are approved.
“ Permit me to give you an account of my last duet without my partner; and as by the original articles of our scribbling treaty you were sincerely to tell me your opinion, so remember your long silence, and give me an answer to this.
“ On my part, I was representing to her the violence, the sincerity of my passion ; but what I most insisted on was, that, in most circumstances, it was different from that of other men. It is true I confessed, with cominon lovers, she was the person that I wished should grant; but with this addition, that she was the only woman that I could allow to refuse. In a word, I am resolved, nay content, to be only hers, though it may be impossible she should ever be mine.
“ To bear injuries or miseries insensibly were a vain pretence-not to resent, not to feel, is impossible ; but, when I dare venture to think she is unjust or cruel, my revenge falls upon all of her sex but herself. I hate, detest, and renounce all other creatures in hoop-petti