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Stir briskly until the cream is well divided,

add the otto, and suddenly pour the whole IV. THE SKIN-TREATMENT OF DISEASES. into a clean vessel containing 8 or 12 pints

of cold water. (Continued from page 23.)

Separate the cream by

straining through muslin, and shake out OINTMENTS, POMADES, ETC.

as much water as possible. 94. Cold Cream, 1.- Take 2 ounces of 97. White Camphorated Ointment, 1.sweet oil of almonds, 3 drachms of white Take 3 ounces 2 drachms of powdered carwax, and the same of spermaceti, 24 bonate of lead (cerussa), 45 grains of ounces of rose-water, 1 drachm of oil of powdered camphor. Mix, and then stir burgamot, and 15 drops each of oil of into 5 ounces of melted lard. lavender, and otto of roses. Melt the This is applied to burns and contusions wax and spermaceti in the oil of almonds, with very good effect, and is much used in by placing them together in a jar, which Austria. The surface must not be abraded should be plunged into boiling water. when it is applied. Heat the mortar (which should, if possible, 98. White Camphorated Ointment, 2.be marble) by pouring boiling water into Take 4 ounces of olive oil, 1 ounce of it, and letting it remain there until the white wax, 22 grains of camphor, and 6 mortar is uniformly heated; the water is drachms of spermaceti. Melt the wax to be poured away, and the mortar dried and spermaceti with the oil, and when well. Pour the melted wax and sperm- they have cooled rub the ointment with the aceti into the warm mortar, and add rose- camphor, dissolved in a little oil. Somewater gradually, while the mixture is con

times the white wax is omitted, and lard stantly stirred or whisked with an egg- substituted for it. whisp, until the whole is cold, and, when

It is useful in chaps, fissures, abrasions, nearly finished, add the oils and otto of and roughness of the skin.

99. Pitch Pomade, 1.-Take one drachm In the absence of a mortar, a basin of pitch, and 1 ounce of lard. Mix well, plunged into another containing boiling and apply twiee a day to the affected water will answer the purpose.

parts. 95. Cold Cream, 2. -Take 10 drachms This is used for ringworm, and scald of spermaceti, 4 drachms of white wax,

head. half a pound of prepared lard, 15 grains

100 Pitch Pomade, 2.-Take 2 drachms of subcarbonate of potash, 4 ounces of of the sulpliate of mercury, 4 drachms of rose-water, 2 ounces of spirits of wine, pitch, and 31 ounces of lard. Mix well, and ten drops of otto of roses.

and apply to the parts twice a day. Proceed as above. Some persons pre- This pomade is used in Paris as a topical fer orange-flower water instead of rose- application to scald head, and ringworm water, in which case use the same propor-, after the scabs ($ 42, § 71,) have been

removed by poultices of spongio piline, * and Cold cream is a useful local application is generally very successful. to hard and dry parts of the skin, to

Astringent Pomade. - Take 1 abrasions and cracks, (§ 26). When drachm of the oxide of zinc, and 1 ounce spread thickly upon rag, it is an excellent of lard. Mix well. application to blistered surfaces or burns, Apply this to fissures of any part, chaps, or may be used to protect exposed parts from the influence of the sun.

* Spongio.piline is a fabric composed of sponge 96. Granulated Cold Cream.- Take white rubber, and now

generally used in most of the

and wool felted together, and backed by Indiac.. wax and spermaceti, of each 1 ounce; large British and foreign hospitals, and by the almond oil 3 ounces, otto of rose, as much leading surgeons of the present day, instead of as you please. Dissolve the way and ordinary poultices. It was introduced to the spermaceti in the almond oil, by means of fore called "Markwick's Patent Spongio-piline.”

public by a surgeon named Mark wick, and thereheat (as recommended in § 94), and when Its chief recommendations are lightness, ecoa little cool, pour the mixture into a large nomy, greater facility of application, and cleanwedgwood mortar previously warmed, and liness, and, perhaps, last, not least, the approbacontaining about a pint of warm water. I tion, who awarded a prize medal for the invention.



or abrasions. It is an excellent dressing and a little cool, stir in a tablespoonful of when thickly spread, for ulcerated sur- fine honey, and continue to stir until quite faces arising from burns.

cold, then place in jars. 102. Pomade against Acne (§ 69). — This is an excellent application to reTake 72 grains of slacked iime, 12 grains move sunburns, and prevent the skin from of pure camphor, and 1 ounce of calamine cracking. It should be applied on going ointment. Mix well, and rub into the to bed, after washing the skin, and allowed parts affected with the disease, morning to remain on all night. and evening, and, at the same time, take a 108. Cream of Roses.—Take of rose. gentle purgative.

water and oil of almonds, each 8 ounces ; 103. Pomade for Scald Head.—Take 3 white wax and spermaceti, each į ounce. drachms of powdered sulphuret of potash, | Proceed as directed for cold cream ; then 3 drachms of sub-carbonate of soda, and add essence of nerolic 10 drops, and otto 3 ounces of lard. ' Mix well.

of roses 8 drops. When cold put into Cut off the hair, apply spongio-piline to pots. remove the scabs, rub the affected parts This is used the same as cold cream, with this pomade, and then cover the but is preferred by many persons. head with blotting-paper. This receipt is 109. Spermaceti Ointment. 1.—Take of highly recommended.

oil of olives, 1 pound, white wax a 104. Anti-psoric Pomade ($ 45), 1. - pound, spermaceti 4 ounces; melt with Take 8 ounces of black soap, 4 ounces of heat, then add water 6 ounces, and stir sea-sand, 4 ounces of powdered sulphur, until cold. and 1 an ounce of hydriodate of potas- This ointment is used to dress blisters, sium. Mix well, and rub in 3 drachms and is also useful for sunburns, and other twice a day.

ivflamed surfaces. This is nearly the best application for 110. Spermaceti Ointment. 2.-Take of itch that is known, but decidedly the best spermaceti 6 drachms, white was ? pomade.

drachms, olive oil 3 ounces; melt with 105. Saturnine Pomade.-Take 3 ounces heat, and stir constantly until cold. of lard, and 1 drachm of crystallized 111. Creosote Ointment.--Take of lard, acetate of lead. Mix well, and then add 14 ounce, and creosote ļ a drachm. 4 drachms of distilled water, stirring it all Melt the lard, add the creosote, and stir the time, and dropping in the water.

well until cold. This is a Polish receipt, and is very This is a useful application to burns, useful for superficial ulcerations of the and ulcerated surfaces, especially chil. skin.

blains. 106. Hydriodate of Potassium Pomade. -Take a drachm of hydriodate of potassium, and 1 ounce of lard. Moisten 112. Cosmetic Powder.-Take of blanched the salt with two drops of water, bruise Jordan almonds, and powdered horse beans, and mix well on a plate or marble each 9 drachms, orris powder 4 drachms, slab by means of a knife. When mixed spermaceti 1 drachm 15 grains, dried add any perfume you please.

carbonate of soda sa drachm, Spanish Rub a little of this ointment into the soap 3 drachms, oils of lavender, beraffected parts twice or thrice a day. gamot, and lemon, of each 23 drops. Pow.

It is used for indolent skin, where the der the almonds, spermaceti, and soap, sebacious glands become enlarged (§ 46), then add the other powders, and mix well; for dry scaly patches in the hands or other lastly add the oils, and after it is well parts of the body, and is one of the best mixed bottle and cork tight. pomades for itch yet discovered; but This is a useful cosmetic powder, and previous to applying it for this disease, the quite harınless. It is cooling, and easily body should be well washed with sand and removed from the skin by a little water

and a flannel. 107. Meline.-Melt 2 ounces of sperma

113. Violet Powder.- Powder some white ceti in a pipkin, then add 2 ounces of oil starch and sift it through a fine piece of of almonds, and when they are well mixed muslin, take 6 ounces of the sifted pow.




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der, add 2 drachins of powdered orris-root any perfume that is grateful to the person. and mix well.

Boil the oil and soap together in a pipkin, Some persons scent the powdered starch and then gradually stir in the sand and with oils of lavender, bergamot, lemon, lemon-juice. When nearly cool add the otto of roses, &c., and occasionally the spirit of wine, and lastly the perfume. powder is tinted with a little stone blue Make into a paste with the hands, and and rose pink, previously well mixed; place in jars or pots for use. this gives the powder a delicate lilac tint, This paste is used instead of soap, and but it is not to be preferred, on account of | is a valuable addition to the toilette, as it its imparting a disagreeable tinge to the preserves the skin from chapping, and skin if too much of the powder is used. renders it smooth and soft.

114. American Cosmetic Powder.-Calcined magnesia applied the same as ordinary toilette powders, by means of a Although we must all deprecate the swan's-down ball, usually called a puff.” practice of painting the face, however

115. Maloine.-Take 4 ounces of pow- ancient it may be, yet this article would dered marsh-mallow roots, 2 ounces of hardly be complete without giving a receipt powdered white starch, 3 drachms of pow- for rouge. In a sanitary point of view it dered orris-root, and 20 drops of essence of cannot be too strongly condemned, as it is jasmine. Mix well and sift through fine likely to obstruct the pores of the skin, muslin.

and thus lay the foundation of disease. This is one of the most agreeable and 120. Rouge. 1.-Take 1 drachm of finely elegant cosmetics yet known for softening powdered carmine, and powdered chalk, 5 and whitening the skin, preserving it drachms. Mix and apply as usual. from chapping, and being so simple that 121. Rouge, 2.—Take 1 ounce of finely

may be applied to the most delicate or powdered French chalk, carmine 15 grains, irritable skin.

and oil of sweet almonds } a drachm. This receipt has never yet been pub. Mix well, and apply as usnal. lished, and we know that only six bottles 122. Liquid Rouge. - Take of rouge, of it have been made.

spirits of wine, white wine vinegar, and 116. O.ride of Zinc is sprinkled into chaps water, equal parts. Mix and apply with a and fissures (§ 26) to promote their cure. piece of fine linen rag.

117. Yaoulta.-Take 1 ounce of white 123. Spanish Rouge.-Take a piece of starch, powdered and sifted, a drachm of linen rag, or, still better, some jeweller's rose pink, 10 drops of essence of jasmine, cotton, wet it well with tincture of cochiand 2 drops of otto of roses. Mix and neal until a good deep colour is obtained keep in a fine muslin bag.

and let it dry. When required moisten This exquisite powder is to be dusted the wool and rub the skin with it. over the face, and, being perfectly harm- In conclusion, we may remark that the less, may be used as often as necessity best purifiers of the skin are soap and requires. It also imparts a delicate rosy water, and a good rubbing with a coarsc tinge to the skin preferable to rouge.

cloth. The best beautifiers are temperance, exercise, and good temper. Ray's advice

on cosmetics is worthy of notice. He says, 118. Almond.—Take 1 ounce of bitter “No better cosmetics than a severe temalmonds, blanch and pound them to a fine perance and purity, modesty and humipowder, then add i ounce of barley lity, a gracious temper and calmness of four, and make it into a smooth paste by spirit; no true beauty without the signature the addition of a little honey. When this of these graces in the very countenance.” paste is laid over the skin, particularly Follow this good advice, and you will in where there are freckles ($ 30), it makes it all probability, escape most of the smooth and soft.

119. Palatine.—Take 8 ounces of soft soap, of olive oil and spirits of wine, each 4 TRUE love can no more be diminished olinces, 1} ounce of lemon juice, sufficient by showers of evil-hap than flowers are silver-sand to form into a thick paste, and' marred by timely rains.--Sir P. Sidney.



self to the lyre. Prior to the invention of the lyre, ORIGINS AND INVENTIONS.

the fiute was the most favourite instrument of

the ancients; so greatly was its music admired ORIGIN OF THE NAME OF Doctor's Com- by all classes of the Greeks that they who played MONS.-On the west side of Thames-street is a upon it skilfully were assured of their fortune. great house, built of stone, which belonged to

Plutarch tells us that the Pythoness at Delphi, Paul's church, and was sometime let to the pronounced her oracles in verse, and her voice was Blunts, Lord Mountjoy; but of a later time to a generally accompanied by the sound of the flute. college in Cambridge, and from them to the doc. Artistotle, indeed, tells us that at its first introtors of civil law and arches, who keep a com- duction among the Greeks, the flute was little mons there ; and, many of them being lodged thought of less esteemed, but after the defeat chere, it is called the Doctor's Commons.

of the Persians, so great was the change of public EATING “HUMBLE PIE."-A correspondent of

opinion in favour of this instrument, that to be

unable to play upon it, was a serious reproach to a most useful publication, “Notes and Queries,” gives the following as the origin of this expres

one who professed to have received a good educa

tion. sive phrase :-". Humble pie' was made out of

ORIGIN OF GOVERNMENT LOANS. - Before the umbles' or entrails of the deer, a dish of the second table, inferior, of course, to the veni

Queen Elizabeth's reign the English monarchs

usually obtained voluntary loans from Antwerp, son pasty which smoked on the dais, and there.

but their credit was so low that they were obliged fore not expressive of that humiliation which the term 'eating humble pie' now painfully de

to make the city of London join in the security, scribes. The umbles' of the deer were the per

besides paying 10 or 12 per cent. interest. Sir

Thomas Gresham engaged the Company of Merquisites of the gamekeeper."

chant Adventurers to grant a loan to Queen GLASS.- Pliny tells us the art of making glass Elizabeth, and as the money was repaid, her was discovered in the following way:~" As some credit by degrees established itself in the City, merchants were carrying nitre, they stopped and she shook off this dependence on foreigners. near a river issuing from Mount Carmel, Not Sir Josiah Child states that in 1668 there were on readily finding stones to rest their kettles on, 'Change more men worth £10,000 than there they used some pieces of nitre for that purpose; were in 1650 worth £1,000; that £500 with the the fire gradually dissolving the nitre it mixed

daughter was, in the latter period, deemed a with the sand, and a transparent matter flowed, larger portion than £2,000 in the former ; that which, in fact, was no other than glass.” Chrono

gentlemen in the earlier times thought themselves logy says that glass was invented in England by well clothed in serge gowns, which a chamberone Benalt, a monk, A.D. 664; and that it was first maid would, in 1688, be ashamed to be seen in; used in private houses in 1180. Lord Kaimes, and that, besides the great increase of rich clothes, however, observes :- "The art of making glass plate, jewels, and household furniture, coaches was imported from France into England, A.D.

were in that time augmented a hundred-fold. 674, for the use of monasteries, and that glass Lord Clarendon says, that in 1665, when money, windows in private houses were rare even in the in consequence of the treaty, was to be remitted twelfth century, and held to be a great luxury.”

to the Bishop of Munster, it was found that the THE ORIGIN OF HOUR-GLASSES.-Hour glasses whole trade of England could not supply above were invented at Alexandria, B.c. 149, and Vitru- £100 a month to Frankfort and Cologne, nor vius relates that about the year 145 Ctesibius, of above £20,000 a month to Frankfort. Alexandria, invented a clepsydra; this consisted Pix JURY.--From Latin (pyxis), a box made of a small boat, floating in a vessel which had a of the box-tree (Pyxacantha), used by the anhole in it; as the water escaped, the boat gradu- cients for gallipots, and to hold the host in Cathoally descended, while an oar, placed in it, pointed lic churches). A jury, consisting of the members to the hours marked on the side of the vessel. of the corporation of the Goldsmiths of the City Ctesibius, is even said to have applied toothed of London, assembled upon an inquisition of very wheels to water clocks. Clepsydra were con- ancient date, called the trial of the pix. The obstructed, in which the water dropped through a ject of this inquisition is to ascertain whether the hole through a pearl, as it was considered that nei- coin of the realm manufactured at her Majesty's ther could adhesion take place to fill up the hole, Mint is of the proper or legal standard. This innor could the constant running of the water enlarge vestigation as to the standard of the coin is called it. Pliny relates that Scipio Nascica discovered pixing it; and hence the jury appointed for the a method of dividing the hours of the night by purpose is called a pix jury. The investigation means of water; and this is all we know of the takes place usually once a year, and the Lord instruments for measuring time used by the an- High Chancellor presides and points out to the cients. In the year 800 Haroun al Raschid pre jury the nature of their duties. They have to sented a clepsydra to Charlemagne, which is re- ascertain whether the coin produced is of the corded to have struck the hours, which was con. true standard or "sterling” metal, of wbich, by sidered a most wonderful instrument.--Time and stat. 35th Edward III., c. 13, all the coin of the Time-keepers.

kingdom must be made. This standard has been THE FLUTE.-The invention of the fute is frequently varied, but for some time has been assigned to the goddess Minerva, of whom it is thus settled :-The pound troy of gold consisting related that having excited the derision of Juno of twenty-four carats (or twenty-fourth parts) and Venus whilst playing upon her favourite in- fine, and two of alloy, is divided into forty-four strument, she examined the reflection of her face guineas and a half, of the present value of 21s. in a fountain, and perceiving the contortions it each; and the pound troy of silver consisting of underwent whilst blowing her flute, she threw it eleven ounces and two pennyweights pure, and into the water, and from that time confined her- eighteen pennyweights alloy, is divided into 62s.


good effect; but the multiplied surfaces of the USEFUL RECEIPTS.

loose hay give it great advantage. It must be

kept wet, however, or at least damp, for the oily Grease for Iron Carriage Axles.-One pound of vapour does not seem to be readily absorbed soda, ten quarts of water, three and a half pounds

unless the air is kept moist by evaporation.-J.

PRIDEAUX. of palm-oil, and ten pounds of Russian tallow.

To remove Ink or Fruit Stains from the Fingers. Excellent Dyes.-A decoction of oak-bark dyes --Cream of tartar, half an ounce; powdered salt

wool a fast brown of various shades, according to of sorrel, half an ounce-mix. This is what is the quantity employed ; an infusion of walnutsold for salt of lemons.

peels will also dye brown. The wool should be

previously dipped in a solution of alum and To clean Tin Covers.--Boil some rotten stone

water, which brightens the colour.--For red dye: and a small quantity of prepared whitening in

boil in a bath of madder, previously rinsing the some sweet oil for two hours, till it acquires the

goods in alum; or, if you wish for purple, emconsistency of cream.

ploy, instead of alum, a bath of acetate of iron. To Perfume Linen.-Rose-leaves dried in the Red dyes are also given by archil, cochineal, shade, or at about four feet from a stove, one Brazil-wood, &c.-For blue dye : boil in a bath pound; cloves, carraway-seeds, and allspice, of of logwood, to which a small quantity of blue each one ounce; pound in a mortar, or grind in a vitriol has been added, using the alum bath as in mill; dried salt, a quarter of a pound; mix all the other cases.-M. C. these together, and put the compound into little

Artificial Mahogany. - The following method bags --S., Clapham.

of giving any species of wood of a close grain the To prevent Coloured Things from Running.– appearance of mahogany in texture, density, and Boil lb. of soap till nearly dissolved, then add a polish, is said to be practised in France with small piece of alum and boil with it. Wash the

The surface is planed smooth, and the things in this lather, but do not soap them. If wood is then rubbed with a solution of nitrous they require a second water put alum to that acid ; one ounce of dragon's blood is dissolved in also as well as to the swilling and blue-water. nearly a pint of spirits of wine; this, and one This will preserve them.

third of an ounce of carbonate of soda, are then To Preserve Pencil Marks.- If you have any

to be mixed together and filtered, and the liquid thing drawn or written with a lead pencil that

in this thin state is to be laid on with a soft you wish to preserve from rubbing out, dip the brush. This process is to be repeated, and in a paper into a dish of skimmed milk. Then dry it,

short interval afterwards the wood possesses the and iron it on the wrong side. In ironing paper external appearance of mahogany. When the do not let the iron rest a moment, (as it will leave polish diminishes in brilliancy, it may be re. a crease or mark,) but go over it as rapidly as

stored by the use of a little cold-drawn linseed possible.-J. MANN, Sheffield.

oil.-J. R. C. Harness Composition. — * Can any of your

Construction of Telescopes.---The following is a readers give the ingredients of a good and tried

simple and neat mode of soldering a piece of

brass to the back of the little speculum of a receipt for the above, to be used for blacking and giving a polish to carriage harness ? I see a re

telescope, as a fixture for the screw to adjust its ceipt for harness-maker's jet,' at page 330, of

axis : telescopes of any construction may be Vol. 6, but question whether it is the same thing, neatly put together by the same means. Having and moreover the ‘isinglass' as an ingredient is

well cleaned the part to be soldered, cut out a expensive.-A."

piece of tin-foil the exact size of them, then dip a

feather into a strong solution of sal-ammoniac, To wash Mousseline-de-Laine.-Boil a pound and rub it over the surfaces to be soldered, then of rice in five quarts of water, and, when cool place the foil between them as fast as possible enough, wash in this, using the rice for soap. (for the air will quickly corrode their surfaces so Have another quantity ready, but strain the rice

as to prevent the solder taking), and give the from this and use it with warm water, keeping whole a gradual and sufficient heat to melt the the rice strained off for a third washing, which tin. If the joints be soldered, have them made at the same time stiffens and also brightens the

very flat; they will not be thicker than a hair colours.-W.

though the surfaces be ever so extensive. Chemical Renovating Balls--for taking out grease,

J. Dawson. paint, pitch, tar, from silks, stuffs, linen, woollen,

To clean White or Coloured Kid Gloves.--Put carpets, hats, coats, &c., without fading the co

the glove on your hand, then take a small piece lour or injuring the cloth :- * oz. of fuller's

of flannel, dip it in camphine, and well but gently earth, oz. of pipe-clay, 1 oz. salt of tartar, 1 oz.

rub it over the glove, taking care not to make it beef gall, 1 oz. spirits of wine. Pound the hard

too wet, when the dirt is removed, dip the flannel parts and mix the ingredients well together. (or another piece if that is become dirty) into pipeWet the stain with cold water, rub it well with this ball, then sponge it with a wet sponge and

clay and rub it over the glove; take it off, and the stain will disappear.

hang it up in a room to dry, and in a day or two

very little smell will remain; and if done careThe smell of New Paint.--A bundle of old, dry fully they will be almost as good as new. hay, wetted and spread about, presents a multi- coloured ones, if yellow, use gamboge after the farious absorbing surface for this, especially if pipe-clay, and for other colours match it in dry not on the floor only, but over pieces of furniture paint. I have tried the other plans recommended which allow circulation of air, as chairs laid in the Family Friend, and have not found them upon their faces, &c. Large vessels of water, as answer at all. Turpentine may do as well, but I trays and pans, are not uncommonly used, with have not tried it.-A SUBSCRIBER.


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