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and downs of Albury, an antient seat of that family, near Boxbill in Surry. They are now to be found in considerable plenty, not only there, but also in several parts of the confines of Sussex'. Of the singular abundance of the helix virgata in some seasons, and the marvellous stories in consequence, see our present volume, p. 239.

The snail - Beneath his house with slimy trail

Crawls o'er the grass. The garden-snail (h. hortensis ) inhabits the gardens and orchards in most parts of Europe, and abounds with a viscid, slimy juice, which it readily gives out, by boiling in milk and water, so as to render them thick and glutinous; and the compound, especially with milk, is reckoned efficacious in consumptive cases. Snails are very destructive to wall-fruit; but lime and ashes sprinkled on the ground will keep them away, and destroy the young brood. Fruit already bitten should not be taken off the tree, for they will not touch the other till they have wholly eaten this, if it be left for them.

30. Nerita, nerite; inhabitant, a limax. These shells inhabit the shores of the sea, rivers, and lakes; some are found adhering to sea-weed, pieces of wrecks, or other extraneous substances; others are only met with in deep waters, and may be taken in nets. Most of the kinds are exceedingly beautiful, and the animals are often eaten by the natives of the sea-shores. The species are numerous, though but few are common to this country, Nothing can exceed the beauty and delicacy of the miniature painting with wbich many of the neritcè are adorned ; and when viewed with a magnifying glass, the most highly finished touches, upon the

i Bingley's Animal Biography, vol. iii, p. 471. ' .
¿ See Gay's xxivth Fable of the Butterfly and the Snail.

smallest scale, are discernible upon their enamelled surface'. The polished nerite (n. polita) is surpassed by none for beauty and variety. They are smooth shells, and display a brilliant lustre, under which are discoverable the most superb party-coloured marks, bands, and dots that can possibly be imagined. They are mostly clouded with green, having intermediate bands of pale pink; but those are considered the rarest, and certainly the most beautiful, which are of a perfect jet black, having three or four bright scarlet bands, which run in a parallel direction with the convolutions of the shell. Some are from India, but the most esteemed are brought from the South seas; the aperture or mouth is of a pure white, sometimes having the throat of a beautifully delicate pale yellow. The n. littoralis is often gathered on our coasts along with the periwinkle, as it frequents the same situations. It is, however, much smaller ; and its flesh is not reckoned equally good. .;

31. Haliotis, ear-shell; inhabitant, a limax. The species are all marine, and, are generally found closely adhering to rocks or stones, within the influx of the tide, and it requires some adroitness to detach them without injury to their shells : the animal is accounted delicate food. The species are not numerous, and we have only one indigenous to Great Britain. It inhabits the sea near Guernsey, and is likewise frequently cast up on the southern shores of Devonshire. The animal is attached by so adhesive a property to the surface of the rocks, that it requires the utmost force to disengage it, though by a spontaneous action it is able to remove with facility from place to place.

"Burrow's Elements of Conchology, p. 103.
> Wodarch's Introduction to Conchology, p. 100.

Division II.-Shells without a regular Spire....

32. Patetla, limpet; inhabitant, a slag. Limpets are found in great abundance on rocky coasts, adhering to rocks and stones; the fresh water species attach themselves to aquatic plants: they all affix themselves so tenaciously, that it is with difficulty they are removed without injury.

The common limpet (p. vulgata) frequents the same situations as the periwinkle, and is equally abundant. Although used by the antients as an article of food, it is seldom brought to market in this country. Among the villages along the coast of Scotland this shell-fish is frequently used, and its juice, obtained by boiling, mixed with oatmeal, is held in high estimation. It is considered in season about the end of May. The chief excellence of the limpet, however, is as a bait. It is very easily obtained from the rocks, from which the fishermen detach it with a knife, and it is easily seized by all the littoral fish which are sought after. To the haddock it is very acceptable. 33. Dentalium, tooth-shell; inhabitant, a terebella.

These shells are all marine; they may be found on sandy beaches at low water, generally in a perpendicular or oblique direction, beneath the sand or mad, and are discoverable by a slight depression on the surface.

34. Serpuld, worm-shell; inhabitant, a terebella.

Like the last genus, these are confined to the ocean, and are often found in considerable numbers, attached to other shells, stones, and plants. 35. Teredo, ship-worm; inhabitant, a terebella or

ascidia. There are not more than four known species of teredo. Of these, two are found in holes, which

they perforate in wood; a third, in the seed vessels of a plant which grows in the East Indies, and called, by Linnæus, xylocarpum granatum ; and the fourth, (the gigantic teredo, in mud at the bottom of the ocean, on the coast of the island of Battoo, near Sumatra. The shells of the latter are between five and six feet in length. .

Great numbers of the ship-worm (t. navalis), which are supposed to have been introduced from India into Europe, are sometimes found in the sides and bottoms of ships ; so much so, as even to endanger their sinking. By means of their hard and cutting jaws, they are able to penetrate into any timber, except such as is of an extremely hard and compact substance. They, however, bore as seldom as possible across the grain; for, after they have penetrated a little way, they turn, and continue with the grain tolerably straight, until they meet with another shell, ora knot. Their course then depends on the nature of the obstruction: if considerable, they prefer making a short turn back, in form of a syphon, rather than to continue for any distance across. Col. Montagu states, that he had an opportunity of examining a great number of these shells in the dock-yard at Plymouth, where every possible means have been tried to prevent the ravages which are committed by them. Although they have not been known in this country more than fifty or sixty years, they are now become naturalized to our climate, and have, of late, very considerably increased in numbers. Piles which bad not been in the water more than four or five years, though of solid oak, were found, on examination, to be greatly perforated by them. In the year 1730, the inhabitants of the United Provinces were under serious alarm concerning these worms, which had made dreadful depredations in the piles that support the banks of many parts of those coasts. One of the persons who had the care of the coasts at that time, observed, to his astonishment, that some of the timbers were, in the course only of a few months, made so full of holes, that they could be beaten to pieces with the least force. Although, when the mud was scraped off, the perforations did not appear much larger than to admit a pin's head, yet the piles, on being split lengthwise, were found full of large passages, or hollow cylindrical ducts, each of which contained a worm inclosed in its testaceous tube, which it exactly filled. The most efficacious method which has hitherto been discovered, to preserve timber from the ravages of these worms, is that which is now adopted in the dock at Plymouth, to cover all the parts which are under water with short broadheaded nails. These soon cover the whole surface with a strong coating of rust, which is found to be altogether impenetrable to the animals". . i . 36. Sabella, concrete-shell; inhabitant various, as

nereis, amphitrite, &c. ii It is not at present determined by the most able conchologists, whether this genus has a claim to its present situation among testaceous shells; but'as no better or more natural situation has been assigned to it, we leave it as previously arranged. The species are found in the sea, and also in fresh water ditches, sometimes affixed to rocks and shells, and at others buried in the mud or sànd.

Colours of Shells. The colours of the shell may generally be detected on the neck of the animal, being the part from which the matter of the shell is supposed to be secreted. Thus, if the ground of the shell be yellow, and it be marked with dark brown or black bands, then the neck of the animal will be seen of a white inclining to a yellow hue, with dark spots, answering in their

* Bingley's Animal Biography, vol. iii, p. 440.

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