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3.-RICHARD, Bishop. ; Richard, surnamed de Wiche, from a place in Worcestershire where he was born, was educated at the Universities of Oxford and Paris. He was as remarkable for his learning and diligence in preaching, as he was for integrity.
4.-MAUNDY THURSDAY. This day is called, in Latin, dies Mandati, the day of the command, being the day on which our Lord washed the feet of his disciples, as recorded in the second lesson. This practice was long kept up in the monasteries. After the ceremony, liberal donations were made to the poor, of clothing and of silver money; and refreshment was given them to mitigate the severity of the fast. A relic of this custom is still preserved in the donations dispensed at St. James's on this day.-See our last volume, pp. 96-98.
The ceremony instituted in commemoration of our Saviour's washing the feet of the apostles is still practised by the Pope at Rome, and is thus described by a modern writer:-" There are thirteen instead of twelve; the one being the representative of the angel that once came to the table of twelve that St. Gregory was serving. The twelve were old priests, but the one who performed the part of the angel, was very young. They were all dressed in loose white gowns, and white caps on their heads, and clean woollen stockings, and were seated in a row along the wall, under a canopy. When the Pope entered and took his seat at the top of the room, the whole company of them knelt in their places, turn; ing towards him; and on his hand being extended in benediction, they all rose again and reseated themselves.
The splendid garments of the Pope were then taken off; and clad in a white linen robe which he had on under the others, and wearing the bishop's mitre instead of the tiara, he approached the pilgrims, took from an attendant Cardinal a silver bucket of water, knelt before the first of them, immersed one foot in the water, put water over it with his hand, and touched it with a square fringed cloth; kissed the leg, and gave the cloth, and a sort of white flower, or feather, to the man; then went on to the next. The whole ceremony was over, I think, in less than two minutes, so rapidly was this act of humility gone through. From thence the Pope returned to his throne, put on his robes of white and silver again, and proceeded to the Saladi Tavola: the thirteen Priests were seated in a row at the table, which was spread with a variety of dishes, and adorned with a profusion of flowers. The Pope gave the blessing, and, walking along the side of the table opposite to them, handed each of them bread, then plates, and, lastly, cups of wine. They regularly all rose up to receive what he presented; and the Pope having gone through the forms of service, and given them his parting benediction, left them to finish their dinner in peace. They carry away what they cannot eat, and receive a small present in money besides.'-(Rome in the Nineteenth Century, vol. iii, p. 139.)
In the forenoon of this day, the effigy of our Saviour is laid in the sepulchre in many of the churches at Rome, and remains there till Saturday at midday, when he is supposed to rise from the grave, amidst the firing of cannon, blowing of trumpets, and ringing of bells, which have been carefully tied up ever since the dawn of Holy Thursday, to protect them from satanic influence. During these two days and nights, hundreds, clad in deep mourning, are continually kneeling in silence the most profound, and in devotion the most fervent, around the illuminated sepulchre of their crucified Redeemer, over which they weep in anguish of spirit. ? On this day (says Lady Morgan) the whole fo
reign population of Rome rolls on, in endless sucCession, to the Vatican. The portico, colonnades, and vestibules, both of the church and palace, assume the air of the court of a military despot. Every epoch in the military costume is there gaudily exhibited. Halberdiers in coats of mail, and slate-coloured pantaloons, which pass upon the faithful for polished steel armour; the Swiss in their antique dresses of buff and scarlet, and lamberkeens; the regular troops in their modern uniforms; the guardia nobile, the Pope's voltigeurs, all feathers and feebleness, gold and glitter; generals of the British army, colonels and subalterns of every possible yeomanry, with captains and admirals of the navy, and a host of non-descripts, laymen, and protestant clergymen, who ‘for the nonce' take shelter under any thing resembling an uniform, that may serve as a passe-partout, where none are courteously received but such as wear the livery of church or state militant;-all move towards the portals of the Sistine Chapel, which, with their double guards, resemble the mouth of a military pass, dangerous to approach, and difficult to storm. The ladies press with an imprudent impetuosity upon the guards, who, with bayonets fixed and elbows squared, repress them with a resistance, such as none but female assailants would dare to encounter a second time. Thousands of tickets of admission are shown aloft by upraised hands, and seconded by high-raised voices; while the officer of the guard, who can read and tear but one at a time, leaves the task of repulsion to the Swiss, who manfully second their ' allez fous en' with a physical force, that in one or two instances incapacitated the eager candidates for further application. A few English favoured by the minister, and all the princes and diplomatists resident at Rome, pioneered by their guards of honour, make their way without let or mor lestation. . One side of the space, separated from the choir by a screen, is fitted up for them apart; the other is for the whole female congregation, who are crushed in, like sheep in a fold. The men, if in uniform or full court dresses, are admitted to a tribune within the choir; while the inferior crowd, left to shift for themselves, rush in with an impetaosity none can resist; for though none are admitted at all to the chapel without tickets, yet the number of applicants (almost exclusively foreign) is much too great for the limited capacity of the place. A scene of indescribable confusion ensues. The guards get mingled with the multitude. English peers are overtạrned by Roman canons. Irish friars batter the old armour of the mailed halberdiers with fists more for midable than the iron they attack.. Italian priests tumbler over tight-laced dandies; and the Via via of the Roman guard, and the Fous ne restez pas issi of the Swiss, mingle with screams, supplications and reproofs, long after the solemn service of the churoh has begun. The procession of the sacrament to the Paoline Chapel succeeds; its gates are thrown open; and its dusky walls appear illuminated with thousands of tapers, twinkling in the rays of the noon. day sun, through an atmosphere of smoke. Few are able to enter the illuminated chapel, or to behold the deposition of the sacrament; and many who are informed of the programme of the day, by endeavour ing to catch at all the ceremonies, scarcely attain to any. - Italy,' vol. ii, p. 297.)...... is a castige Luennoi ol. 5,-GOOD FRIDAY. Lib. Logga e This day commémorates the sufferings of Christ, as a propitiation for our sins. Holy Friday, or the Friday in Holy Week, was its more antient and ge! neral appellation; the name Good Friday 'is peculiar to the English church. It'was observed as a day of extraordinary devotion. Buns, with crosses upon them, are usually eaten in London and some other places on this day, at breakfast. 50 It On the morning of this day, at Rome, the Pope appears in the Sixtine Chapel, about ten o'clock,