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For another fine passage on the same inspiring subject, from the pen of the same author, see our last volume, p. 44. * 1809.-GAS INTRODUCED FOR LIGHTING
THE STREETS. The inefficient mode of lighting the streets of London in antient times, compared with the brilliant method of the present day, is worthy of notice. In 1692, a petition was presented to Parliament by the patentees of convex-lights, for a further extension of their term; which was opposed by the city and lanthorn-makers, who objected to the company that the necessity of men going about the streets to snuff the lamps would endanger the safety of the inhabitants; and their having ladders with them, would give them an opportunity of committing robbery by getting into the windows of their houses. By particulars incidentally stated it appears that the city was at that time lighted with horn-lanthorns and candles, which, by a statute of Henry IV, every person was compelled to hang outside of his house. The convexlights were, no doubt, the first step to the globe-lamps with oil-burners. But to what an astonishing pitch of perfection is the mode of lighting now arrived, when a subtle vapour is conveyed from a great distance in innumerable subterranean tubes, supplying the fuel of a brilliant illumination, and as if,
Pendent by subtle magic, many a row
· In FEBRUARY 1822.
SOLAR PAENOMENA. The Sun enters Pisces at 49m. after 3 in the morning of the 19th of this month, and he rises and sets during the same period as in the following
6th - - - 18 - - 7 - • 42 . - 4
26th - - - 41 - - 6 - - 19 - • 5 The Sun will be eclipsed on the 21st, but the eclipse will not be visible in this country, as it will be central on the meridian at 8 b. 40 m. in latitude 40° 1'1 north, and longitude 120° 59'Į west.
Equation of Time. * When the time is known from a good sun-dial, and it is required to find what should be indicated by a well regulated clock at the same moment, the apparent time, given by the dial, must be increased by the following quantities.
. . 13
Phases of the Moon.
Moon's Passage over the Meridian. The Moon will pass the first meridian of this country at the following times, when she may be conveniently observed in that position, if the atmosphere be free from clouds in that direction, viz. February 1st, at 57 m. after 7 in the evening
2d, • 0- - : 9 - - - -
3d, - 1 - - - 10 . . . . . · 14thé .41 ... 5 in the morning
February 15th, - 31 - - - 6 in the morning
16th, - 22 - - - 7 -, - - -
- Lunar Eclipse. On the 6th the Moon will be visibly eclipsed. The time and other-circumstances of the eclipse, as computed for the first meridian, will be as follow, viz.
. h. m. $.
End of the eclipse - - - - 6 36 36 - - Digits eclipsed 4° 34'} from the north side of the Earth's shadow, or on the Moon's southern limb.
Phases of Venus. The illuminated and dark parts of this planet bear the following proportion at the commencement of this month, viz. :
s Illuminated part = 3.28695 February 1st Dark parti = 8:71305 In T. T. for 1819, p. 51, we showed that Venus shines with her maximum brightness when the breadth of her illuminated part is 3:1908 digits, and which is therefore a little more than a fourth part of the diameter. The great variation in the distance of this planet from the Earth causes this proportion to be so small. From the proximity of this number to that which expresses the enlightened part on the 1st of this month, it is evident that the greatest brilliancy will be about the 2d of February.
Eclipses of Jupiteris Satellites. The following are such of the eclipses of these small planetary bodies as will be visible at the Royal Observatory this month, viz.:
Emersions. 1st Satellite, 6th day, at 41 m. after 6 in the evening :..
13th - - 37 - - 8 - - 2d Satellite, 5th • . 32 . . 9. - . .
12th · · 35 · · 9 · ... ·
Other Phenomena. The Moon will be in conjunction with ß in Taurus at 44 m. after 2 in the morning of the 2d of this month; with e in Leo, at 13 m. past midnight of the 6th; with « in Scorpio, at 56 m. after 3 in the morning of the 15th; and with Mercury at 46 m. after 3 in the morning of the 23d. Venus will be stationary on the 17th, and Mercury on the 26th; this latter planet will also attain his greatest elongation on the 19th. Mars will likewise be in opposition at half past 6 in the morning of the same day.
The Naturalist's Diary
For FEBRUARY 1822.
CAMPBELL.. This month has frequently a most wintry aspect; the ground is covered with snow, the rivers are frozen, and the cold is intense; and now
Heaven's chancel yault is blind with sleet. February is sometimes, however, characterised by mild weather, as in some recent seasons. The severe weather usually experienced in February breaks up with a sudden thaw, accompanied by wind and rain; torrents of water pour from the hills, and the snow is completely dissolved. Rivers swell and inundate the surrounding country, often carrying away bridges, cattle, mills, gates, &c, and causing great injury to the farmer. Ice breaks from the banks of pools and streams, and floats; a sign of relenting frost and a milder temperature.-See our last volume, pp. 48-49.
In the course of this month all nature begins, as it were, to prepare for its revivification. God, as the Psalmist expresses it, 'renews the face of the earth;' and animate and inanimate nature seem to vie with each other in opening the way to spring. About tho 4th or 5th, the woodlark (alauda arborea), one of our earliest and sweetest songsters, renews his note; a week after, rooks begin to pair; the thrush sings; and the yellow-haminer is heard. The chaffinch sings; and the redbreast continues to warble. Turkeycocks strut and gobble. Partridges (tetrao perdix) begin to pair; the house-pigeon bas young; fieldcrickets open their holes; and wood-owls hoot: gnats play about, and insects swarm under sunny hedges; the stone-curlew (otis ædicnemus) clamours; and frogs (rana temporaria) croak.
By the latter end of February, the raven (corvus corax) has generally laid its eggs, and begun to sit. Moles (talpa europæus) commence their subterraneous operations. --See T. T. for 1814, p. 49, and T. T. for 1818, p. 43.
About this time, the green-woodpecker (picus viridis) is heard in the woods, making a loud noise.
Bullfinches return to our gardens in February, and though timid half the year, are now fearless and per-' severing. On the mischief effected by these birds at this season, see our last volume, p. 50.
But few flowers appear in this month : the dwarfbay (daphne mezereon) puts forth its beautifully red and copious flowers, often entirely concealing the branches; the laurustinus (viburnum tinus) is in flower, and the great henbit (lamium amplexicaule) graces the sunny bank with its purple blossom; while