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For Sirius gens the zone of night,
And, clad in giant-armour bright,
And o'er the sleeping world his watchful light suspends. About the middle of the month, the common martin disappears; and shortly afterwards, the smallest kind of swallow, the sand-martin, migrates. The Royston or hooded crów (corvus cornix) arrives from Scotland and the northern parts of England, being driven thence by the severity of the season. The woodcock returns, and is found on our eastern coasts. Various kinds of waterfowl make their appearance; and, about the middle of the month, wild geese leave the fens, and go to the rye lands, to devour the young corn. Rooks sport and dive, in a playful manner, before they go to roost, congregating in large numbers. The starling (sturnus vulgaris) sings. (See our last volume, p. 255.) The awk or puffin (alca arctica) visits, for the purpose of incubation, some of the rocky isles of Britain, in amazing numbers.
On the appearance of the gossamer in this month, see T. T. for 1820, pp. 261-264; and on the gammamoth, consult our last volume, p. 257.
• The flowery coronal,' which, some few weeks since, began to fade and wither, is now almost entirely deprived of its glittering honours: but fruits and seeds, and the changing hues of the leaves of many trees, afford a pleasing variety in the absence of the usual floral attractions. The following are usually in blow in this month; the holyoak, Michaelmas daisy, stocks, nasturtian, marigold, mignionette, lavender, wall-flower, china rose, virginia stock, :heart's ease, laurustinus, rocket, St. John's wort, periwinkle, &c. But chiefly the dahlia, a flower now in general cultivation, exhibits its majestic and brilliant splendour of stars above its dark green stalks and leaves.-See our last volume, pp. 258260, for a description of the two species of dahlia usually grown, with full directions for rearing them.
Those few pale Autumn flowers,
How beautiful they are !
How lovelier far!
The last! the last ! the last!; ,
That sister of the past!
Ye're types of precious things;
On rapid, rapid wings.
(That time the fastest spends)
Last looks of dying friends.
A life into a day,
Must leave us, and for aye? .
Pale flowers ! ye're types of those;
To an eternal close..
I woo your gentle breath
Tell me of change and death". * Hips and haws now ornament the hedges; an abundance of the latter was considered by Lord Bacon to foretel a severe winter, an extraordinary quantity of this fruit being bountifully prepared by Providence as a support for the poor birds during the expected rigorous and inclement weather. There is very little foundation for this remark; and an at
'Blackwood's Magazine, vol. ix, p. 369.
. A a ..
tention to the rules of Lord Bacon's own philosophy, would have taught him to regard it as the effect of a genial and favourable spring, which allowed the blossoms to set and mature into fruit. The berries of the bryony and the privet; the barberry, the blackberry, the holly', and the elder, from which is made the famous winter wine of Old England's peasantry; with sloes, bullaces, and damsons, are now in great plenty. The juice of sloes makes a tolerably good marking ink for linen, and, when inspissated, forms the celebrated German acacia.
The stone curlew, or great plover, which arrived in April, now departs for a warmer climate; one of these birds was shot in the wing by the son of a farmer, at Gransden in Huntingdonshire, Oct.23,1819, who endeavoured to keep it alive, but it soon died.
The principal harvest of apples? is about the beginning of this month; and the counties of Herefordshire, Worcestershire, Somersetshire, and Devonshire, are busily employed in the making of cider and perry. Herefordshire is particularly famous as a cider country. October is the great month for brewing beer, whence the name applied to very strong beer of OLD OCTOBÈR: In this month also is the great potatoe harvest. The corn harvest being over, the stone-pickers go out again.
Shooting and hunting are favourite diversions in this month. The lawless poacher is now on the alert, and spreads bis nets and lays his snares for game; and not unfrequently commences a career of guilt, which terminates in an ignominious'end. Poachers shoot pheasants by night, or take them, by finding the trees whereon they roost, and burning sulphur under them and suffocating them. See an accurate description of the poacher's miserable hovel, and
* All of these furnish food to birds during the winter, and are generally found in sufficient abundance, if the spring have been favourable, whatever may be the severity or mildness of the winter..
2 For some curious particulars respecting the spots on apples, and the unceasing tendency of nature to produce, see our last vol. p. 261.
and per countryience the name this me
the implements of his trade, by SIR WALTER SCOTT, in our last volume, p. 262. -t! The sowing of wheat is generally completed in this month: when the weather is too wet for this occupation, the farmer ploughs up the stubble fields for winter fallows. Acorns are sown at this season, and the planting of forest and fruit trees takes place.
The vintage, or harvest of grapes, as important to foreigners as the corn harvest is to us, takes place in October, and the vineyards of France, Germany, Switzerland, Italy, &c. &c. now resound with the cheerful songs of the peasantry, at the conclusion of their labours. See our last volume, p. 264; and a description of the vine-dressers' festival in p. 265.
In NOVEMBER 1822.
. 1.- ALL SAINTS. IN the early ages of Christianity the word saint was applied to all believers, as is evident in the use of it by Saint Paul and Saint Luke; but the term was afterwards restricted to such as excelled in Christian virtues.-For some rural customs on this day, see T. T. for 1814, pp. 278-9. See also April 1, at p. 90 of the present volume. : : ;
2.--ALL SOULS. ., . · In Catholic countries, on the eye and day of All Souls, the churches are hung with black; the tombs are opened; a coffin covered with black, and surrounded with wax lights, is placed in the nave of the church, and in one corner, figures in wood, repre- » senting the souls of the deceased, are halfway plunged into the flames.
5.4KING WILLIAM LANDÈD. The glorious revolution of 1688 is commemorated on this day, when the throne of England became vested in the illustrious House of Orange. Although King William landed on the 5th of November, the almanacks still continue the mistake of marking it as the fourth.
5.-POWDER PLOT. This day is kept to commemorate the diabolical attempt of the Papists to blow up the Parliament House. The best account of this nefarious transaction is detailed in Hume's History of England, vol. vi, pp. 33-38 (8vo edition, 1802. - See also T. T. for 1814, p. 280.
6.-SAINT LEONARD. ; . Leonard, or Lienard, was a French nobleman of great reputation in the court of Clovis 1; he was instructed in divinity by Remigius, Bishop of Rheims, and afterwards made Bishop of Limosin. Several miraculous stories are told of him by the monks, not worth relating. He died about the year 559, and has always been implored by prisoners as their guardian saint.
9.-LORD MAYOR'S. DAY. The word mayor, if we adopt the etymology of Verstegan, comes from the antient English maier, able or potent, of the verb may or can. King Richard I, A.D. 1189, first changed the bailiffs of London into Mayors; by whose example others were afterwards appointed. See T. T.' for 1818, p. 278, and our last volume, p. 269, for some pleasing lines on this day. A minute description of the Lord Mayor's Show, as it was managed in the year 1575, will be found in T. T. før 1820, p. 274.
*9. 1820.-- JOHN MʻLEOD, M.D., DIỆD, ÆT. 38, Author of à · Voyage to Africa, and the Voyage of the Alceste,'-two works of considerable popularity and interest.