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MEANING OF THE CONSERVATION MOVEMENT.

By GIFFORD PINCHOT.

A man who has a suit of clothes is foolish if he tears it needlessly, gets it soiled without cause, and by carelessness wears it out before its time. A farmer who owns a farm is foolish if he exhausts the soil, destroys his woodlot, and lets the farm run down from the lack of skill and foresight in handling it. A State is foolish if it allows its roads to be gullied, its bridges to grow unsafe, and the State property and institutions to deteriorate for the lack of proper maintenance and care. A Nation is foolish which permits the great natural resources, the foundations of prosperity, the raw materials of clothes, food, and shelter to be needlessly wasted and destroyed for the lack of organized intelligent foresight.

Conservation means nothing more than the application of common sense and the long look ahead to the timber, coal, iron, the streams, and the soil, with the idea of protecting them from needless waste and injury, and of getting out of them for the benefit of all the people the best service they are capable of rendering,

Conservation means the use and development of our natural resources first for the benefit of us who are now on the earth, and secondly for the benefit of those who are to come after us.

One of the most important things that can possibly be done for those who come after us is to prevent the creation of giant monopolies which will fatten upon them. Many or most of such monopolies, like the Steel Trust, the Standard Oil Company, and the Copper Trust, are based on the control of natural resources. Among those great trusts which are not yet completely formed, but are rapidly forming, is the Waterpower Trust, the most dangerous of them all, for whoever controls waterpower controls mechanical power, and mechanical power is at the bottom of transportation, manufacture, and all the industries of the Nation. It is good for us and our descendants that our waterpowers should be developed, but it is not good that they should be monopolized.

Here is what Conservation stands for, and what the Conservationists have been fighting for,—the right of all our people now and hereafter to their fair share in the benefits which the natural resources of this rich continent can be made to confer.

cisions on, 70.
Bohemia, Socialist Movement in,

162.
Boycott, definition of, 84; legality,

85; court decisions on, 68, 69;

and Clayton Act, 85.
Boycott, Blacklist and Injunction,

84.
Brandeis, Louis D., and the “Proto-

col,” 55.
Brazil, Socialist and Labor Move-

ments in, 232.
Briand, Aristide, 178.
Brush Industry, (Mass.) Minimum

Wage Legislation, 62.
Budget, Wage-Workers', 279.
Building Trades Department of A.

F. of L., 19.
Bulgaria, Socialist and Labor Move.

ments in, 168; Young People's

Movement, 249.
Burnett Bill (See Immigration).
Butte, Montana, Socialist Adminis.

tration of, 116.

A.
Academic Freedom, 319.
Accidents, Industrial in United

States, 290; insurance against
(see Social Insurance; Work

men's Compensation).
Administration of the United States,

359.
American Federation of Labor-

character, 18; convention, 1915,
21; departments, 19; directory
of, 28; and eight hour law 24,
and immigration, 22; finances,
20; industrial unions in, 19; and
legislation, 17, 19; membership,
19; in Mexico, 239; on prepared-
ness, 22; principles, 17, publica-
tions issued by, 27; and the So-

cialists, 89.
Agriculture, Socialist Party pro-
gram regarding, 123; women in,

255.
Amalgamated Clothing Workers,

31, 51.
American Association of Public

Employment Offices, 370.
American Labor Movement, 11.
"American Socialist,” The, 93, 144.
Anarchist Movement in China, 224;

Holland, 195; Portugal,

Spain, 213.
Anseele, Edouard, 167.
"Appeal to Reason," 90, 145.
Arbeiter Ring, 39.
Arbitration, compulsory in Canada,

231; Norway, 203; New Zealand,
246; legislation on, 60; in the

Needle Trades, 55.
Arizona Strike, 50.
Argentine, Socialist and Labor

Movements in, 232.
Ashtabula, Proportional Represen-

tation in, 364.
Australia, Socialist and Labor

Movements in, 242.
Austria, Socialist and Labor Move.

ments in, 161; Young People's
Movement, 247.

205;

C.
Cahan, Abraham, 31.
California, Socialist Legislation in,

105.
Canada, Socialist and Labor move.

ments in, 229.
Candidates, Presidential, Socialist,

1916, 129.
Caplan, and Schmidt, trial of, 45.
Chicago Teachers' Federation, 32.
Chicago Strike, 51.
Child Labor, and Woman, 254 ;

Federal Law, 261; minimum age
and hours, 259, 261; in agricul.
ture, 255, 257, 258, 264; in manu.
facturing and mechanical indus-
tries, 256, 258, 259, 267.
Chile, Socialist and Labor Move.

ments in, 233.
China, Socialist and Labor Move.

ments in, 222; Six Power Loan
to, 326.
Christian labor unions in Belgium,

166; in Germany, 184.
Christian Socialist Fellowship, 157.
Cientificos” in Mexico, 235.
Cities, operating under Commis

sion plan, 360.
Citizenship, a guide to applicants

for (see Naturalization).
Civil Rights of Employees, 61.
Class Struggle

and War, 332.
Clayton Anti-Trust Law and Boy.

cotts, 85.
Cloakmakers' “Protocol,” 55.
Closed Shop, court decisions on, 70.
Colorado, Lawson murder trial, 45.

B.
Bakunin, 160.
Balkan Confederation, 169, 193, 212.
Bayonne Strike, 48.
Belgium, Socialist and Labor

Movements in, 165; Young Peo.

ple's Movement, 249.
Benson, Allan L., 92, 129.
Berger, Victor L., 90; work in Con-

gress, 100.
Berkeley, Calif., Socialist Adminis.

tration of, 116.
?icklist, definition, 88; court de-

DeLeon, Daniel, 89.
Debts, National, in various coun.

tries, 330, 331.
Debs, Eugene V., 90, 91.
“Declaration of intention,” becom-

ing a citizen, 372.
Definitions of Socialism, 2, 159, 253.
Democratic Party, platform con-

cerning Labor (See Labor and

the Democrats).
Democratizing the Schools, 313.
Denmark, Socialist and Labor

Movements in, 171; Young Peo-
ple's Movement, 247.
Diaz Regime in Mexico, 234.
Dick Military Law, 22.
Direct Action, Socialist Party posi-

tion on, 121.

Commission Form of Government,

The, 360; arguments pro and con,

362, history of, 360.
Commission-Manager plan, 362.
Commission on Industrial Relations,

The, 269.
Commissions (State) Minimum

Wage, 64.
Community Centers in the U. S.,

?17.
Compensation, Workmen's, in vari-

ous states, 292; compulsory vs.
elective, 293 ; limits for disability
benefits, 296; medical aid pro-
vided, 294; significant features of,
293; court decisions affecting, 78;

in Mexico, 237.
Compulsory Education, 306; legis.

lation concerning, 306.
Congress of the United States,

election of, 356; powers of, 358.
Connolly, James, 192; in memoriam,

250.
Conscription, attitude of British

Labor Movement to, 190.
Conservation of Natural Resources,

375.
Constabulary, State (see State Con-

stabulary).
Constitution of the United States,

356; amendment of, 358.
Contempt of Court, court decisions

on, 68, 70.
Contract of Employment, court de-

cisions affecting, 74.
Cooperation in the United States,

300; history of, 301; present
status of, 302; relation to labor
unions, 303; difficulties of, 303,
304; Consumers', 301, 305; Bel.
gian form of, 305; miners'
operatives, 302; legislation on,

E.
Earnings in the United States, 275.
Economic Imperialism, 325; and

the Balkan States, 326; and the
Boer War, 327; and Egypt, 325;
French, 325; German, 326; Brit-
ish, 325, 327; and Mexico, 325,
327; and Persia, 326; and Tur-

key, 326.
Education, Public 306; attendance,

307, 308; employment certificates,
307 ; Mortality in School Attend.
ance, 308; Federal Aid to, 311;
Compulsory, 306;

Vocational,
315; (see Democratizing the

Schools).
Eight-Hour Day, Extent of, 58;

attitude of A. F. of L., 24.
Election Reform in Austria, 162;

Belgium, 166; Denmark,
Holland,

194; Hungary,
Roumania, 208.
Electorate,

The, of the United
States, 359.
Employment Agencies, and the

white slave traffic, 283.
Employment Offices, Public, court

decisions affecting, 77; (See Pub.

lic Employment Offices).
Employment on Public Works, 59.
England (See Great Britain and

Ireland).
European War (See Economic Im-

perialism and War, Militarism

and “Preparedness”).
Examining and Licensing of Work-

men, legislation concerning, 59.
Exchanges, Labor (See Public Em-

ployment Offices).
Executive, The, of the United

States, 356.

171;
197 ;

CO-

F.

60; League of America, 303.
Cooperative Movement in Argen-
tine, 232; Austria, 164; Belgium,

Denmark, 172; Finland,
176; Germany, 185; Gt. Britain,
190; Hungary, 199; Norway, 204;
Russia, 211; Spain, 215; Sweden,

218; Switzerland, 220.
Coppage vs. Kansas Case, 68, 71,

82.
"Council of Conciliation” in the

Garment Industry (N. Y.), 56.
Court Decisions in United States

Affecting Labor, 68.
Crane, Walter, in memoriam, 250.
Cuba, Socialist and Labor Move-

ments in, 234.
Czech, Socialist Movement, 162.

D.
Danbury Hatters' Case and the Su-

preme Court, 86-87; and A. F. of
L., 25.

167 ;

Fabian Society, 186, 187.
Factory Inspection, in Europe and

the United States, 65; legisla.

Guadeloupe, Socialist Movement in,

240.

tion concerning, 60; court deci.

sions on, 73.
Federal Aid for the Common

Schools, 311.
Federal Child Labor Law, 261.
Federal Commissions, 357.
Federal Commission on Industrial

Relations, 269, 297.
Ferrer, Francisco, 213.
Finland, Socialist and Labor Move-

ments in, 173; Young People's
Movement, 249.
Finnish Socialist Federation in the

United States, 130.
“First Papers," method of obtain-

ing, 372.
Flynn, Elizabeth Gurley, trial of,

47.
Food, increasing cost of, during

War, 331.
Foreign Language Federations (So.

cialist) in the United States, 129.
France, Socialist and Labor Move-

ments in, 177; Young People's

Movement, 249.
French Socialist Federation in the

United States, 132.

H.
Hardie, J. Keir, 181, 187; in Mem-

oriam, 251.
Hare System (See Proportional

Representation).
Health Legislation, treatment by

Democrats, 333.
Health of School Children, The,

309.
Hillquit, Morris, 31, 45, 102, 103,

129, 158.
Holidays and Rest Days, legisla-

tion on, 60.
Holland, Socialist and Labor

Movements in, 194; Young Peo-
ple's Movement, 249.
Hours of Labor, 58; legislation on,

60; court decisions on, 71; and

organized labor, 13, 24.
Hyndman, H. M., 187.
Hungary, Socialist and Labor

Movements in, 197.
Hungarian Socialist Movement in

the United States, 134.

G.
Garment Industry, “Protocol” in

the, 55.
Garment Workers, and the Jews,

30; trial of leaders, 44.
“Gary Plan,” The, 314.
General Strike, in Denmark, 172;

Belgium, 167 ; Finland, 174; Nor-
way, 203; Sweden, 216, 218;

South Africa, 241.
German Socialist Federation in the

United States, 133.
Germany, Socialist and Labor

Movements in, 181; Young Peo.

ple's Movement, 248.
Gompers, Samuel, attitude on citi-

zen army, 23;. eight-hour law,

25; Mexican crisis, 239.
Government, form of United States,

356; Commission Form of (See
Commission Form of Govern

ment).
Government Ownership of Public

Utilities and A. F. of L. (See

Articles on Public Ownership).
Graduate Income and Inheritance

Taxation, 335; In California, 339;
France, 336; Germany,

337;
Great Britain, 338; New York, 339;

United States, 335, 339.
Great Britain, Socialist and Labor

Movement in, 185; Young Peo.

ple's Movement, 248.
Greece, Socialist and Labor Move-

ments in, 193.
Guesde, Jules, 178, 179.
Guyana, Socialist Movement in, 240.

I.
Illinois Senate Vice Committee

Report, 282.-
Illinois, Work of Socialists in Leg.

islature, 106.
Illiteracy, 311.
Immigration, 322; legislation on,

322; literacy test, 322; Burnett
Bill, 322; and A. F. of L., 22;
and public employment, (See

Public Employment Offices).
Imperialism (See Economic Im-

perialism).
Income (Property) in the United

States, 280.
Income Tax, 336.
Industrial Accidents in the United

States, 290.
Industrial Commissions, State, . 66.
Industrial Relations Commission,

members of, 269; duties, 269;
findings, 270; Manly report, 271;
infant mortality, 272;, unemploy:
ment, 273; causes of industrial

unrest, 272.
Industrial Unionism and the So-

cialist Party, 91.
Industrial unions, connected with

A. F. of L., 19.
"Industrial Union News,” 38.
Industrial Unrest, causes of, 272.
Industrial Workers of the World

(1.W.W.) 36, 91.
Infant Mortality, 267, 272.
Inheritance Taxation, 339.
Initiative, Referendum and Recall,

surance

Status of, in the United States

367.
Injunction in Labor Disputes, 88.
Inspection, Factory, 65.
Insurance against, accidents, sick-

ness, old age, unemployment (See
Social Insurance and Workmen's

Compensation).
Insurance, Social, in United States,

286; measure advocated by Con.

gressman London, 102.
Insurance, State (See Social In-

and Workmen's Com-
pensation).
Intercollegiate Socialist Society,

156.
Interlocal (Socialist Party) Educa.

tion Committee of New York,

153.
International, The, 160; Socialist

Bureau, 160; Socialist and La-
bor Movements, 160; (See Table
of Contents); Workingmen's As-
sociation (first International),

160; Young People's, 247.
Invalidity Insurance (See Social In-

surance).
Ireland, Socialist and Labor Move-

ments in, 191; Italy, Socialist
and Labor Movements in, 199;

Young People's Movenient, 248.
Italian Socialist Federation in the

United States, 136.

Labor Movement in the U. S., 11;

in various countries (See Inter-
national Socialist and

Labor
Movements).
Labor organizations, legislation on,

60.
Labor Exchanges (See Public Em-

ployment Offices).
Labor, Scientific Management and,

297.
Labor Secretariat of New York

City, 42.
Labor Legislation in 1915, 59.
Labor Peace Conference, 21.
Labor unions, Socialist Party's at-

titude towards, 121.
La Follette Law, (Seaman's Act),

59, 335.
Land Question in Mexico, 237.
Larkin, James, 192.
Latin America, Socialist and Labor

Movements in, 231.
Lawson, John, trial of, 45.
Laws, Labor (See Legislation).
Legislation, Labor, 59; Minimum

Wage, 61.
Legal Advice to labor unions, 42.
Licensing and Examining Work-

men, Legislation on, 59.
Liebknecht, Karl, 184.
Life and Labor,” 34.
Liquor Problem, Socialist Party.

position on, 125.
List system, (See Proportional

Representation).
Literacy Test (See Immigration).
Lithuanian Socialist Federation in

the United States, 140.
Lockouts in the United States in

1915, 54.
London, Meyer, 239; work in Con-

gress, 102.
Low wages and Prostitution, 282.

J.
Japan, Socialist and Labor Move-

ments in, 225.
Japanese Socialists in America, 137.
Jaurés, Jean, 178, 179, 232; in mem-

oriam, 251.
Jewish Labor Movement in the

United States, 30; relation to
A. F. of L., 30, 32; relation to
Socialists, 31; Jews, Socialist

activities among, in America, 138.
Journals, Trades Union, 27; Social-

ist, 146.
Judiciary of the United States, The,

356.
Junta, (Mexican) Revolutionary in

America, 235.

K.
Kansas Labor Statute Case and the

Supreme Court, 68, 71, 82.
Kidnapping, court decisions on, 69.
Kirkpatrick, George R., 92, 129.
Knights of Labor, 18, 89.

M.
MacDonald, J. Ramsay, 187.
“Maison du Peuple,” Brussels, 167.
Martinique, Socialist Movement in,

240.
Massachusetts, Wages in, 276.
Maurer, James H., 103; Record in

Penna. Legislature, 112.
Mexico, Socialist and Labor Move-

ments in 234; attitude of Ameri-
can Socialists to intervention in,

236, 128, and A. F. of L. 239.
Militarism, Cost of, 329; Socialist

position on, 103, 125; (See War,
Militarism and Preparedness and
Economic Imperialism).
Military Strike in Finland, 174.
Mines, court decisions affecting, 78.
Milwaukee, Record of Socialist Ad-

ministration, 117.

L.
Labor and Community Centers, 318.
Labor and the Democrats, 332.
Labor, Knights of, 18, 89.

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