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and adopted new and efficient methods of management. New York, Pennsylvania, New Jersey and California have enacted new laws embodying the most approved principles of administration that recent study and practice have developed, while New York City, Loš Angeles, Cali, and several other cities are conducting municipal bureaus along most efficient and progressive lines.

Massachusetts led the way in 1907 with an excellent system of records and an efficient business organization. Wisconsin followed in 1911 adapting these to its own needs and adding an improved method of selecting the office force and a joint committee of employers and workers to advise in the management and insure neutral conduct between labor and capital. Ohio in 1914 took a further step when, in conjunction with the City of Cleveland, it established special bureaus for juveniles and immigrants in connection with the State-City Labor Exchange. The recent laws enacted in New York, Illinois, Pennsylvania, New Jersey and California have adopted most of these principles, and civil service appointments have been made the rule in most of the offices. All of this development has brought considerable uniformity of record systems, methods of management and principles of administration in the leading states.

The recent progress toward efficiency and success of public employment offices has been due very largely to an organization of employment bureau officials known as The American Association of Public Employment Offices. This was organized in Chicago in December 1913 and annual meetings have been held since that time. Details of conducting employment bureaus are discussed at these meetings. From the discussions has come a certain concensus of opinion regarding fundamental principles which is gradually finding its way into all the states. Growing directly out of the work of this association has come the organization of the National Farm Labor Exchange with the primary purpose of handling the vast army of harvest hands needed in the grain states of the mid-west. In 1915 the Exchange, which is a co-operative arrangement of the labor and immigration officials of the grain states and the Federal Government, had its first experience in attempting to control the distribution of harvest hands. Not much was accomplished, but the beginning of an effective movement for controlling this great army of labor has been made.

Little headway has been made up to the present toward securing a national system of public labor exchanges. Many bills to accomplish this purpose have been introduced in Congress during the last two sessions, but these bills have not been based on careful investigation of the exact needs

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and they have failed to come to a vote. At the present time there is before the house the Nolan bill (H.R. 5783) reported favorably by the Committee on Labor. This bill is better than most of the others, but leaves much to be desired. It creates a Bureau of Employment in the Department of Labor with power to establish employment bureaus throughout the country and to co-operate with the existing state and local bureaus. The relations between the existing offices and those to be established by the United States Government are, however, not definitely worked out, and until this is done there can be no successful national system. The employment work of the U. S. Bureau of Immigration has failed of its purpose primarily because it ignored the existence of local Offices and attempted to duplicate their work. The U. S. Commission on Industrial Relations prepared a plan of organization for a National Labor Exchange in the form of a bill which attempted to weld the existing public employment offices into a national system by creating a federal bureau with only supervisory and co-ordinating powers. There were to be no federal local bureaus. But this plan has neither been published nor introduced in Congress. It was indorsed in substance by the American Association of Public Employment Offices.

Meanwhile the U. S. Bureau of Labor Statistics is publishing in its “Monthly Review” statistical reports from public employment bureaus all over the country. This has an excellent effect in leading to uniformity of record-keeping so that comparison and co-operation among the offices may become possible. The American Association of Public Employment Offices has two committees at work, one on a uniform system of record-keeping, the other on a model employment office law, and its annual meetings continue to discuss plans for a National Labor Exchange. In a short time we may expect these plans to take concrete form, and federal action is likely to follow soon afterward.

References. New York Commission on Employers' Liability and Un

employment, 1911, Appendix III. Political Science Quarterly, March 1913. Journal of Political Economy, July 1915. U. S. Bureau of Labor Statistics-Monthly Review, Jan. 1916

to date. Statistics of Unemployment and Employment Offices-Bulle

tin 109 U. S. Bureau of Labor Statistics. Proceedings American Association of Public Employment

Offices—Bulletin U. S. Bureau of Labor Statistics.

NATURALIZATION.

By I. M. SACKIN. A Guide to Applicants for Citizenship. I. GENERAL STATEMENT AND PRACTICE. A. WHO CAN BECOME A CITIZEN OF THE UNITED

STATES AND WHO CANNOT?

(1) All free white persons and those of African nativity and African descent can become citizens of the United States.

(2) Chinese, Japanese, Malays, etc., are excluded from naturalization.

(3) The following persons are also excluded: Anarchists, criminals, illiterates, polygamists and persons who cannot prove good moral character. B. WHAT STEPS MUST BE TAKEN TO OBTAIN

FIRST PAPERS? (Declaration of Intention)

(1) First papers may be obtained at any time after arrival in the United States, the only condition being that the applicant must be at least 18 years of age.

(2) The applicant must go to the court house in the city or county where he resides and the clerk of the court authorized by law to do so, will prepare the necessary certificate for him.

(3) The legal fee for first papers is one dollar ($1.00).

(4) The applicant must be prepared to supply the following information: (a) Place and date of birth; (b) Place at which he boarded vessel which brought him to the United States; (c) Name of such vessel and place and date of its arrival in the United States; (d) Place of last foreign residence. No other information is necessary.

(5) No witnesses are required.

(6) The first papers or the Declaration of Intention cannot be obtained by applying through the mails; the applicant must appear in person.

(7) It is important that the applicant furnish the clerk of the court his true name, and if he has ever been known by or used any other name, also to advise the clerk of such fact.

(8) It is the duty of the court to furnish the applicant with a certified copy of the Declaration of Intention, and it is important that the applicant carefully read the certificate before leaving the court house, and that he immediately call the attention of the clerk to any mistakes which might have crept into it.

C. WHAT STEPS MUST BE TAKEN TO OBTAIN

SECOND PAPERS?

(1) When application may be made: As soon as the applicant has lived five years in the United States and two years have elapsed since the taking out of the first papers. But he must not wait until his first papers are more than seven years old, as the first papers are good only for seven years.

(2) The Petition: Before making out the Petition for second papers it is important that the applicant determine whether the case comes under the new law or the old. The following persons come under the new law:

All persons who have arrived in the United States since June 29th, 1906, and all persons who have taken out their first papers since September 27th, 1906. A. UNDER THE OLD LAW.

The applicant goes to the clerk of the court in the county where he resides and brings with him his first papers and two witnesses who are citizens of the United States. The clerk will hand him an application blank which he must fill out. His witnesses must make oath that they have known him for the past five years and that he is a man of good moral character. B. UNDER THE NEW LAW.

The applicant must go to the clerk of the court in the county where he resides and obtain a blank form of application for a certificate of landing. This must be filled out and sent to the Department of Labor at. Washington, D. C. Upon receipt of this at Washington, the said certificate will be filed and recorded and a copy returned to the clerk of the court. The clerk will then inform him by letter that such certificate has been received. Upon receipt of this letter, the applicant should go to the clerk's office with his two witnesses and make out a petition for second papers in the same manner as under the old law.

(3) After the petition is filed: Upon the acceptance of the petition by the clerk, the applicant will receive a card or a certificate with the number of his petition printed there

This card should be retained as it may be useful for future reference. He will next be called before the United States attorney in his district who will question him and his witnesses with regard to the statements made by him in the petition. He will also be required to answer questions about the Constitution and Government of the United States.

(4) The Final Hearing: The final hearing is in open court. The Judge examines the applicant as to his knowl

on.

edge of the Constitution of the United States and that of the State where he resides. He also examines his witnesses as to their qualifications and questions them as to his reputation and character. At the conclusion of the hearing the Judge either orders his admission to citizenship or denies his application.

II. IMPORTANT RULES AND DECISIONS.

1. It is a felony to make a single false material statement under signature in any of the proceedings in connection with naturalization, or for a witness to swear falsely that he has known the petitioner for at least five years.

2. The following persons do not require first papers: A person under twenty-one years old who has been honorably discharged from the United States army, or has served five years in the United States navy, or one enlistment in the marine corps of the United States.

3. A person who has taken out his first papers and has afterwards served three years on a merchant vessel of the United States, and can produce a certificate of good conduct, may be naturalized without proving five years residence in the United States.

4. A woman citizen of the United States loses her citizenship if she marries an alien.

5. Women may apply for citizenship if single, widowed, or divorced, provided they are otherwise qualified.

6. The wife of an alien cannot be naturalized during the lifetime of her husband.

7. An applicant for naturalization must be able to read the English language and sign his own name.

8. The minor children of aliens who were born or have resided out of the United States at the time of the naturalization of their parents, and now dwelling within the United States, become citizens by such naturalization.

9. The naturalization of the husband, naturalizes the wife and their children under 21 years of age.

10. A woman and minor children can obtain second papers on the first papers of the husband should he die before becoming a citizen.

11. A petitioner for naturalization may compel his witnesses to come to court to testify by serving them with subpoenas which may readily be obtained from the clerk oi the court.

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