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what made Mr. Gompers change his mind on this law. In his speech in Philadelphia, he flung at Delegate Gallagher, ‘Do you know where the eight hour law in California originated? It was started by the Socialist Party of California.'"

Mr. Gompers, who opposed the resolution, asserted that there were, unfortunately, some who did not believe that struggle and travail were natural in human development and who thought that an easy route could be found. He believed that tyranny would necessarily result if the state interfered.

"I am unwilling as one,” he affirmed, “to place within the power of a political agent, call him what you please, the right to govern my industrial liberty, or the industrial freedom of my fellow workers. There never was a government in the history of the world and there is not one today that, when a critical moment came, did not exercise tyranny over the people.

I have been in constant touch with the men in the Australasian labor movement. While in this convention I have received a letter from Melbourne in which it is declared that the trade union movement is becoming weakened and enfeebled.

The truth is it was the Socialist Party that first made the declaration to secure the eight hour day by law. It was predicated upon the motion of ballot box mania, and it was for the purpose of injecting into the convention and into the labor movement of America such questions as may tend to divide us.

If the miners want regulation by law, let them have it, but you cannot force it down the throats of other trade unionists. Primarily I want the government to secure to us by law the right to exert and exercise the normal human activities of selfdevelopment and associated effort, so that we may fight the battles, not by a piece of paper dropped in an urn or a beautifully carved ballot box, but by scars of battle, by the hunger of the stomach, by the weeping and the wailing of life, and still stand true to the battle line of Labor.”

The philosophy underlying the remarks of President Gompers were challenged by such well known unionists as Van Lear and President Johnston of the Machinists and Secretary Green of the United Mine Workers.

On the calling of the roll, the committee reported 8,500 for the committee's report and against the resolution, and 6,396 against the report.

A somewhat acrimonious tilt between Mr. Gompers and Delegate Barnes resulted from the introduction of a resolution to find out whether or not the rank and file of membership wished to elect officers by referendum rather than by the convention methods. The resolution was lost.

The convention voted to give its moral and financial support to the Danbury Hatters; in favor of government ownership of telephones and telegraphs and municipal housing, free text books in universities, industrial education, legislation restricting the use of armed guards, and many other important legislative and industrial changes.

Altogether the convention indicated that the delegates were becoming supremely alive to the big issues of the day, and while to the advance guard of the labor movement many of their decisions could not be justified, the thrashing out of big national and international questions, as witnessed at the convention, and the intelligent and fearless challenging by the minority of positions which they deemed unsound, gave much promise for the days that are to come.

DIRECTORY A. F. OF L. Headquarters 801-9 G Street, N. W. Washington, D. C.

OFFICERS OF THE FEDERATION. President-Samuel Gompers. Vice Presidents-James Duncan, James O'Connell, D. A.

Hayes, Joseph F. Valentine, John R. Alpine, H. B. Per

ham, Frank Duffy, William Green. Treasurer-John B. Lennon. Secretary—Frank Morrison.

DEPARTMENTS. Building Trades Department, Ouray Bldg., Washington, D. C. Metal Trades Department, Ouray Bldg., Washington, D. C. Mining Department, Ouray Bldg., Washington, D. Ć. Railroad Employees Department, Ghio Bldg., St. Louis, Mo. Union Label Trades Department, Ouray Bldg., Washington, D. C.

UNAFFILIATED ORGANIZATIONS. The following labor organizations are not affiliated with the A. F. of L. but maintain friendly relations with the Federation: Bricklayers and Masons International, University Park

Bldg., Indianapolis, Ind. Brotherhood of Locomotive Firemen and Enginemen, Jef

ferson Bldg., Peoria, Ill. Brotherhood of Locomotive Engineers, B. of L. E. Bldg.,

Cleveland, O. Brotherhood of Railroad Trainmen, American Trust Bldg.,

Cleveland, O. National Window Glass Workers, 419 Electric Bldg., Cleve

land, O. Order of Railway Conductors of America, Cedar Rapids,

Iowa.

LABOR PRESS. PUBLICATIONS ISSUED BY THE A. F. OF L.: The American Federationist (official), monthly-President Gompers,

editor. A. F. of L. Weekly News Letter-Contains digest of news of interest to

the trade union movement. Furnished to labor press, organizers, and other trade union officials.

OFFICIAL JOURNALS OF INTERNATIONAL UNIONS. American Pressman-Rogersville, Tenn. American Flint, The-Ohio Building, Toledo, Ohio. Bakers' Journal-Bush_Temple of Music, Chicago, Ill. Barbers' Tournal—222 East Michigan Street, Indianapolis, Ind. Blacksmith's Journal-Monon Building, Chicago, Ill. Boilermakers' Journal-Law Building, Kansas City, Kan. Bookbinders' International Journal -222 East Michigan Street, Indian

apolis, Ind. Brauer Zeitung-2347-51 Vine Street, Cincinnati, Ohio. Bricklayer and Mason-University Park Building, Indianapolis, Ind. Brick, Tile, and Terra Cotta Workers' Journal-2341 W. 12th Street,

Chicago. Bridgemen's Magazine-American Central Life Building, Indianapolis, Ind. Broom Maker—851 King Place, Chicago. Buchdrucker Zeitung-Newton Claypool Building, Indianapolis, Ind. The Carpenter-Carpenters' Bldg., Indianapolis, Ind. Cigarmakers' Journal-Monon Building, Chicago, Ill. Commercial Telegraphers' Journal-Monon Bldg., Chicago, Ill. Coopers' Journal-Bishop Building, Kansas City, Kan. Electrical Worker--Reisch Building, Springfield, Ill. Elevator Constructor-Perry Building, 16th and Chestnut Streets, Phila.

delphia, Pa. Garment Workers' United Weekly Bulletin-Bible House, New York,

N. Y. Glass Worker-118 E. 28th Street, New York, N. Y. Glove Workers' Monthly Bulletin—Bush Temple of Music, Chicago, Ill. Granite Cutters' Journal-Hancock Building, Quincy, Mass. Harpoon, The Brotherhood of Railway Postal Clerks P. O. Box 1302,

Denver, Col. Horseshoers' Journal-Second National Bank Building, Cincinnati, Ohio. Iron, Steel, and Tin Workers' Amalgamated Journal-House Building,

Pittsburgh, Pa. Ladies' Garment Workers' Journal-32 Union Square, New York City. The Lather-Superior Building, Cleveland, O. Leather Workers' Journal-Postal Building, Kansas City, Mo. Locomotive Engineers' Journal-B. of L. E. Building, Cleveland, O. Locomotive Firemen's Journal—Traction Terminal Bldg., Indianapolis,

Ind. Longshoreman-18 W. 12th Street, Erie, Pa. Machinists' Journal-McGill Building, Washington, D. C. Maintenance of Way Employes' Advance Advocate-27 Putnam Avenue,

Detroit, Mich. Marble Worker-406 East 149th Street, New York, N. Y. Master, Mate and Pilot—80 Broad Street, New York, N. Y. Metal Polishers' Journal-Neave Building, Cincinnati, O. Metal Workers' (Amalgamated Sheet) Journal-Nelson Building, Kansas

City, Mo.
Mine Workers' Journal Merchants' National Bank Building, Indian-

apolis, Ind.
Miners' Magazine-Denham Building, Denver, Colo.
Mixer and Server-Commercial-Tribune Bldg., Cincinnati, O.
Molders' Journal-Box 699, Cincinnati, Ohio.

Motorman and Conductor-601-603 Hodges Block, Detroit, Mich.
Musicians' International Journal-3535 Pine Street, St. Louis, Mo.
Painter and Decorator-Drawer 99, Lafayette, Ind.
Paper Makers' Journal—127 N. Pearl Street, Albany, N. Y.
Patternmakers' Journal—1008 Second National Bank Building, Cincinnati,

Ohio.
Paving_Cutters' Journal-Lock Box 27, Albion, N. Y.
Photo Engraver, The American—6111 Bishop Street, Chicago, Ill.
Plasterer-442 East Second St., Middletown, O.
Plate Printer-414 Wash. Loan & Trust Co. ding, Washington, D. C.
Plumbers' Journal—411-16 Bush Temple of Music, Chicago, Ill.
Potters' Herald-Box 6, East Liverpool, Ohio.
Quarry Workers' Journal --Scampini Building, Barre, Vt.
Railway Carmen's Journal-507 Hall Building, Kansas City, Mo.
Railway Clerk-Kansas City Life Bldg., Kansas City, Mo.
Railway Conductor-Kimball Building, Cedar Rapids, Ia.
Railroad Telegrapher-Star Building, St. Louis, Mo.
Railroad Trainmen's Journal—1207 American Trust Building, Cleveland,

Ohio. Railroad Freight Handlers' Journal-1123 Wells Street, Chicago, Ill. Retail Clerks' International Advocate-Lock Drawer 248, Lafayette, Ind. Seamen's Journal, Coast–84 Embarcadero, San Francisco, Cal. Shingle Weaver-202 Maynard Bldg., Seattle, Wash. Shoe Workers' Journal-246 Summer Street, Boston, Mass. Stationary Firemen's Journal—3615 N. 24th Street, Omaha, Neb. Steam Engineer-6334 Yale Avenue, Chicago, Ill. Steam Shovel and Dredge--105 West Monroe St., Chicago, Ill. Stereotypers and Electrotypers' Journal—309 N. 24th Street, South Omaha,

Neb. Stone Cutters' Journal-Central Life Building, Indianapolis, Ind. Stove, Range, and Metal Pattern Workers Journal—1210 Jefferson Ave.,

E., Detroit, Mich. Switchmen's Journal-326 Brisbane Building, Buffalo, N. Y. The Tailor-1595 East 67th Street, Chicago, Ill. The Teamsters, Chauffeurs, Stablemen and Helpers' Magazine--222 East

Michigan Street, Indianapolis, Ind. Textile Worker-86-87 Bible House, New York, N. Y. Tile Layers and Helpers' Journal—119 Federal Street, N. S., Pittsburgh,

Pa. Tobacco Workers' Journal-American National Bank Building, Louisville,

Ky. Travelers' Goods and Novelty Workers' Journal—191 Boyd Street, Osh.

kosh, Wis. Typographical Journal-Newton Claypool Building, Indianapolis, Ind. Union Postal Clerk-219 South Dearborn St., Chicago, Ill. Wood Carver--10 Carlisle Street, Roxbury, Boston, Mass.

TEACHERS' UNIONS.

BY BENJAMIN GLASSBERG. The first teachers' union was formed in Chicago in 1902. It came after a five years' struggle on the part of the Chicago Teachers Federation, which had been organized in 1897. Their struggle was for a living wage. Their maximum salary after eleven years of service was $825. Tired of repeated excuses of “no money," the teachers determined to find money for the city. Their search very soon led to the discovery that the great majority of the rich corporations in the city had not been paying a cent into the municipal treasury for years. Then began the heroic fight of the teachers to force these predatory corporations to pay their share of the taxes. There were writs, mandamuses, appeals, and stays. By 1902 five corporations were finally forced to pay $600,000 as their annual taxes.

The teachers seemed beaten, when an invitation came from the Chicago Federation of Labor to allow organized labor to help the teachers in their fight for justice. After some hesitation they decided to affiliate themselves with the organized workers of Chicago and together fight the common enemy of the workers.

Some of the most important achievements of the Chicago Teachers union are as follows:

The maximum salary has been raised from $825 a year to $1,500.

They helped in the fight for equal suffrage.
They fought the school book trust.

They fought the attempts of Big Business to institute a dual system of education, which would put the children of the workers in one class and the children of the rich in another.

They fought to have the use of the public school building given to the people for social centers.

They worked for better sanitary and educational conditions for children.

They actively supported every movement for public ownership of all public utilities.

The pressure of economic conditions forced upon the teachers of Cleveland also, the recognition that only through organized efforts could they hope to secure any improvement in their status. In May, 1914, a union was formed, affiliated with the Cleveland Federation of Labor. Although the lower courts upheld the teachers in their right to join a union, the school officials immediately discharged the leaders, who were all teachers of long experience. The Superintendent of Schools was fined for violating a restraining injunction that had been secured. The upper courts however sustained him. The right of the teacher to join a union is not yet disposed of, it being still before the courts.

Within the past year (1916) Scranton, New York and Washington, D. C., have witnessed the formation of teachers' unions. In May, 1916, came the organization of a national league of teachers unions, the American Federation of Teach

The charter members are the three unions in Chicago, and the unions in Gary, Ind., Scranton, Pa., Washington and New York. The total membership is about 6,000. The American Teacher, a monthly published in New York City since 1912, in the interests of "Democracy in Education, Education for Democracy” has been adopted as the official organ of the Federation.

ers.

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