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rado; nine a day and fifty-four a week in Arkansas, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, New York, or Utah; nine a day in Montana, or Oklahoma; ten a' day and fifty-four a week in Massachusetts, Michigan, Ohio, Pennsylvania, and Rhode Island; ten a day and fifty-five a week in Connecticut, Delaware, and Wisconsin; ten a day and fifty-six a week in Wyoming; ten a day and sixty a week in Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi, New Jersey, Oregon and Texas; ten a day in Illinois, North Dakota, South Dakota, and Virginia; ten and a half a day and fifty-seven a week in Tennessee; ten and a quarter a day and fifty-five a week in New Hampshire; eleven a day and fifty-eight a week in Vermont; eleven a day and sixty a week in South Carolina; and sixty a week in Georgia and North Carolina. In Washington a commission had power to fix hours. The only states òr territories in which night work of adult women was prohibited were Connecticut (where the law is ineffective by reason of its wording), Indiana, Massachusetts, Nebraska, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, and Porto Rico.

In most states women are not permitted to work in mines, and in some states they cannot be employed in occupations which require them to stand constantly. In Connecticut, Massachusetts, New York and Vermont in 1916 they were not permitted to work for a certain period before or after childbirth.

All the states and other political divisions had in January, · 1916, laws limiting the hours of labor of children under sixteen in factories except Alaska, Hawaii, New Mexico, the Philippine Islands and West Virginia. Montana and Texas only regulated the hours of girls by the same provisions as for women. Porto Rico had a seven hour day and a fortytwo hour week. But the most common hours permitted children under 16 were eight a day and forty-eight a week, which was the limit in Arizona, Arkansas, California, Colorado, District of Columbia, Illinois, Iowa, Kansas, Kentucky, Massachusetts, Minnesota, Mississippi (in cotton and knitting mills boys could work ten hours a day and sixty a week), Missouri, Nebraska, Nevada, New Jersey, New York, North Dakota, Ohio, Oklahoma, and Wisconsin. Of the other states the legal hours for children under 16 were nine a day and fifty a week in Vermont; nine a day and fifty-one a week in Pennsylvania; nine a day and fifty-four a week in Florida, Idaho and Indiana; fifty-four a week in Delaware, and Utah (for boys only under 14); ten a day and fifty-four a week in Michigan and Rhode Island; ten a day and fifty-five a week in Connecticut; ten a day and fifty-six a week in Wyoming; fiftyseven a week in Tennessee; ten a day and fifty-eight a week

in Maine; ten a day and sixty a week in Louisiana, and South Dakota; ten a day in Maryland, Oregon, and Virginia; sixty a week in Georgia, and North Carolina; ten and a fourth a day and fifty-five a week in New Hampshire; and eleven a day and sixty a week in Alabama and South Carolina. In Washington, as in the case of women, hours were regulated by a commission and not by the State Legislature. Night work in factories was prohibited for children under 16 in all the states and other political divisions except Alaska, Georgia, Maine, Maryland, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, the Philippine Islands, South Dakota, Texas, Utah, West Virginia, and Wyoming; but in Hawaii only night work of girls was forbidden.

The efficacy of this legislation depends, however, upon its enforcement, and whether or not it is adequately enforced depends in great measure upon the methods used in its administration. In most states employment certificates are issued by local school authorities, but in Connecticut they are issued by the State Board of Education, in New York by local health departments, in Maryland by the State Bureau of Statistics and Information, and in Wisconsin .by the Industrial Commission or by a local judge, while in Virginia any notary public can issue an employment certificate. To see that children are not employed under the legal minimum age or without certificates under the regulated age, two agencies are generally depended upon, first, local school authorities in their function of enforcing through attendance officers the compulsory education law, and second, a state department of inspection or of labor enforcing through inspectors all or most of the labor laws of the state.

The Federal Law. A federal act prohibiting the shipment in interstate commerce of manufactured goods produced in whole or in part by the labor of children under 14 years of age or of children under 16 who have worked more than eight hours a day is to go into effect in 1917. The shipment of the products of mines and quarries in which children under 16 are employed is also prohibited. This act is to be enforced by the Secretary of Labor under regulations to be framed by the Secretary of Labor, the Secretary of Commerce and the Attorney General.

TABLE I.

Distribution of Persons by Occupations, 1900 and 1910.

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1910 10 years and over 37,027,558 30,091,564 81.3 34,552,712 8,075,772 23.4 10 to 13 years..

3,665,779 609,030 16.6 3,593,239 286,946 8.0 14 to 15 years.. 1,798,449 744,109 41.4 1,770,898 350,140 19.8 16 to 20 years.. 4,564,179 3,615,623 79.2 4,632,821 1,847,600 39.9 21 to 44 years 1. 17,849,843 17,262,209 96.7 16,331,449 4,302,969 26.3 45 years and over 9,149,308 7,860,593 85.9 8,224,305 1,288,117 15.7

1900 10 years and over 29,703,440 23,753,836 80.0 28,246,384 5,319,397 18.8 10 to 13 years.. 3,289,701 585,687 17.8 3,221,969 204,936 6.4 14 to 15 years.. 1,562,726 678,724 43.4 1,538,856 280,831 18.2 16 to 20 years..

3,716,714 2,855,425 76.8 3,837,851 1,237,967 32.3 21 to 44 years 1. 14,113,999 13,463,704 95.4 13,187,534 2,759,546 20.9 45 years and over 7,020,300 6,170,296 87.9 6,460,174 836,117 12.9

1 Includes persons of unknown age.
Thirteenth Census of the United States, Vol. IV.

Occupations, p. 69.

TABLE II. Distribution of Persons Engaged in Gainful Occupations

by Nativity, 1900 and 1910.

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Thirteenth Census of the United States, Vol. IV.

Occupations, p. 65.

Every new labor paper established is a new outpost of the workers' army, a guidon planted nearer the goal.

TABLE III. Distribution of Persons Engaged in Gainful Occupations,

1900 and 1910.

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Thirteenth Census of the United States, Vol. IV.

Occupations, p. 57.

TABLE IV.
Distribution of Persons by Occupations, 1910.

General division
of occupations

Total
1910

Male

Female
Per

Per
Number Cent. Number Cent.

38,167,336 30,091,564 78 8 8,075,772 21.2

12,659,203 10,851,702 85.7 1,807,501

964,824 963,730 99.9 1,094

14.3
0.1

All occupations
Agriculture, forestry, and

animal husbandry Extraction of mineral Manufacturing and mechan.

ical industries
Transportation
Trade
Public service (not else.

where classified)
Professional service
Domestic and personal ser.

vice
Clerical occupations

10,658,881
2,637,671
3,614,670

8,837,901 82.9 1,820,980 17.1
2,531,075 96.0 106,596 4.0
3,146,582 87.1 468,088 12.9

459,291
1,663,569

445,733 97.0
929,684 55.9

13,558 3.0 733,885 44.1

3,772,174
1,737,053

1,241,328 32.9 2,530,846 67.1
1,143,829 65.8 593,224 34.2

Thirteenth Census of the United States, Vol. IV.

Occupations, p. 57.

TABLE V.

Number of Families with Mothers Living with Family, and Number and Per Cent. of Such Families with Mothers Gainfully Employed,

by Industries.

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Summary of the Report on Conditions of Woman and Child Wage Earners in the United States, U. S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics, Bulletin 175, p. 18.

TABLE VI. Per Cent. of Women 16 Years of Age and Over Earning

Under $6 and Under $8 in a Representative Week.

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Summary of the Report on Conditions of Woman and Child Wage Earners in the United States, U. S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics, Bulletin 175, p. 22.

The importance of the demand for "recognition of the union” may be very well judged by the amount of opposition it encounters from the employing class.

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